Annotated Bibliography: Can Gay Parents Raise Well-adjusted Children?

Annotated Bibliography: Can Gay Parents Raise Well-adjusted Children?

Bos, Henny, and Nanette Gartrell. “Adolescents of the USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Can family characteristics counteract the negative effects of stigmatization?” Family Process 49.4 (2010): 559-572.

This article investigates the influence of homophobic stigmatization on the well-being of seventeen-year-old teenagers that were born via donor insemination. Their mothers registered prior to their birth in the biggest, longest-running, future research of lesbian families. Information for the article was gathered via questionnaires answered by 78 teenagers (39 boys and girls) and their mothers. The adolescents were asked whether they had faced discrimination anchored in their mother’s sexuality, and their welfare was evaluated via the parental account of the conduct of the child. 41% of the adolescents had encountered stigmatization rooted in homophobia. This article is significant in the argument as the hierarchal, numerous, regression assessments disclosed that stigmatization was related to more problems in the performance of the adolescents, though family compatibility eased the negative impact. In the results of their study, Bos and Gartrell affirm that children that have close constructive affiliations with their lesbian parents show resilience with respect to stigmatization (559-572).

Gallagher, Maggie 2012. Gay Parenting Could Negatively Impact Kids. CBN NEWS. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2012/June/Gay-Parenting-Could-Negatively-Impacts-Kids/>.

Gallagher sought to challenge earlier assertions that children nurtured by gay parents are equal or even better than the ones nurtured by married heterosexual parents (par. 1-5).  In an assessment of 2,988 grown-ups from 18 to 39 years of age, the ones raised by gay parents had unconstructive results in at least 19 out of the 40 set categories when judged against children raised by married heterosexual parents. This article is valuable in the argument as it affirms that children seem most appropriate to do well as grown-ups when raised by married heterosexual parents.   

Gehrt, Amy 2014. Amy Gehrt: Gay parents and well-adjusted kids. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.milforddailynews.com/article/20140718/News/140716458>.

Gehrt argues that children raised by gay parents are in reality more probable of being better and more contented (pp. 1-2). In a study of 315 gay parents with five-hundred children, the results established that children with gay parents had an approximately 6% higher score on family unity and wide-ranging health. According to Gehrt, much studies show that the welfare of children is influenced by the affiliations with the parents, the feeling of fitness and safety by their parents, and the existence of socioeconomic backing for the family and not gender or sexuality of the parents. On the contrary, the people that allege to be very concerned with the welfare of children raised by gay parents in reality pose the greatest predicament to them. Nevertheless, children raised by gay parents demonstrate resilience with respect to social, emotional, and sexual health irrespective of the economic and legal differences and social stigmatization. In addition, this article affirms that with respect to other aspects, like psychological well-being as well as physical performance, there was no difference between the children raised by gay parents and the ones raised by heterosexual parents. This article powerfully contributes in the argument through its affirmation that being biologically capable of bearing children does not essentially indicate that one can raise well-adjusted children.

Goldberg, Abbie E. Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Research on the family life cycle. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2010. Print.

The previous several decenniums have witnessed growing debates concerning same-sex parenthood. Goldberg (2010) embarks on a family life cycle advance, starting with studies on the manner in which lesbian and gay parents meet and construct healthy bonds, choose to have children, and their way of tackling the changing tasks every partner has to take. This article could be useful in the argument through its exploration of the experiences of nurturing children from their infancy to their youth, encompassing the difficulties of interrelating with their schools and educators. Through integration of qualitative and quantitative research, Goldberg (2010) accurately express that children of lesbian parents have no psychological challenges. In fact, the outcomes denote that many children brought up by lesbian parents have particular strengths over their counterparts.

Jaslow, Ryan 2012. Kids of gay parents fare worse, study finds, but research draws fire from experts. CBSNEWS. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/kids-of-gay-parents-fare-worse-study-finds-but-draws-fire-from-experts/>.

As affirmed by Jaslow, a study was conducted to evaluate whether there were dissimilarities between children raised by gay parents and the ones that were raised by married heterosexual parents (par. 1-20). The study considered social, psychological, and affiliation aspects with the results encompassing whether the children were in need of public aid such as welfare, were anxious or depressed, were facing abuse, or were more probable of being involved in unhealthy behaviors like having many sexual partners, alcohol consumption, and substance abuse. In the study 175 currently grown-ups stated having been raised by lesbian parents, whereas seventy-three affirmed that their fathers were gay parents. Concentrating on the outcomes of the study, it is evident that the participants raised by lesbian parents fared poorer when judged against the ones raised by married heterosexual parents. This article is valuable in the arguments with its affirmation that gay parents do not raise well-adjusted children.

Taylor, Marygrace 2014. Heterosexual and Gay Parents Raise Equally Happy Kids. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.whattoexpect.com/wom/family-life/0708/heterosexual-and-gay-parents-raise-equally-happy-kids–study-.aspx>.

Health-wise, socially, and conduct-wise, children brought up by gay parents grow just as fine as the ones bought up by straight parents. As affirmed by Taylor, survey outcomes were judged against national health records on children brought up by heterosexual parents and those raised by gay parents. In matters of general conduct, health, and family unity, children brought up by gay parents fared better than children raised by heterosexual parents. Irrespective of the reality that children raised by gay parents have a higher chance of facing social stigma because of their parents’ sexuality, which is unfavorable to their psychological well-being, they are well-adjusted. This article is valuable and strengthens the notion that what children require is love and being taught concerning diversity from childhood to assist them in becoming more resistant of peers from diverse settings.         

Van Gelderen, Loes, et al. “Stigmatization and promotive factors in relation to psychological health and life satisfaction of adolescents in planned lesbian families.” Journal of Family Issues 34.6 (2013): 809-827.

Van Gelderen et al. sought to evaluate whether stigmatization was related to emotional adjustment in the children from lesbian parents and to assess whether personal and social promotive aspects had an impact in this union. 78 adolescents (half boys and half girls) answered an online questionnaire concerning emotional health challenges and happiness in life. Moreover, information was sought concerning androgynous individuality attributes (a personal aspect) of the children, family compatibility and suitability of their peer groups. The study found that stigmatization was related to psychological challenges and decreased happiness in life, though family compatibility and companionship of friends improved the situation. This study is important in the argument as it establishes that stigmatization has an unconstructive influence on the psychological adjustment of the children with gay parents

Works Cited

Bos, Henny, and Nanette Gartrell. “Adolescents of the USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Can family characteristics counteract the negative effects of stigmatization?” Family Process 49.4 (2010): 559-572.

Gallagher, Maggie 2012. Gay Parenting Could Negatively Impact Kids. CBN NEWS. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2012/June/Gay-Parenting-Could-Negatively-Impacts-Kids/>.

Gehrt, Amy 2014. Amy Gehrt: Gay parents and well-adjusted kids. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.milforddailynews.com/article/20140718/News/140716458>.

Goldberg, Abbie E. Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Research on the family life cycle. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2010. Print.

Jaslow, Ryan 2012. Kids of gay parents fare worse, study finds, but research draws fire from experts. CBSNEWS. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/kids-of-gay-parents-fare-worse-study-finds-but-draws-fire-from-experts/>.

Taylor, Marygrace 2014. Heterosexual and Gay Parents Raise Equally Happy Kids. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.whattoexpect.com/wom/family-life/0708/heterosexual-and-gay-parents-raise-equally-happy-kids–study-.aspx>.

van Gelderen, Loes, et al. “Stigmatization and promotive factors in relation to psychological health and life satisfaction of adolescents in planned lesbian families.” Journal of Family Issues 34.6 (2013): 809-827.