Argumentative Essay on whether God exists

The Argument from Motion

The issue on whether God exists has been a subject of scrutiny for very many years, it has been debated and this has resulted into two groups, those who believe that God exist and those who do not. There is no theory that satisfies the quest to know the origin of the universe, only the explanation that the Universe was created by God can fully explain how the Universe began. Many theories suggest that the world started from nothing, one example is the Big bang theory. Despite the differences, it is hard to deny the fact that the world and everything in it was created by God. It is interesting to note that the Big bang theory defies the scientific rules that it claims to uphold, it does not address the concept of creation.

From Aquinas thoughts, God is the primary mover and the force behind the universe; he makes things move and is in charge of every situation (Copleston, 1956). His philosophy shows the existence of God and in my opinion; God exists and cannot be removed from the argument on the motion. Everything on earth is under his power. Working from common assumptions, for example, things in motion are caused to be in motion through other things.

Aquinas arguments about motion prove that God exists. Motion is an infinite return of things to a less developed state; all things that are in motion must be put in motion by other things. Motion is the reduction of something from its potential force to its existing force; it involves things moving through an act. The ability of having motion is as a result of the all-powerful God; God makes things be in motion and to have the potential for moving.


Nature operates on a determinate end and done under the direction of another higher agent, all things that are done on this earth must all be traced to the creator who becomes the first source. If we argue that nature make things have the power to move, then what gives the nature power to move, for example, what makes the earth go round the sun each day? Everything voluntarily must always be traced back to a higher cause other than our human thoughts or will; this is because without the higher cause then things in motion will fail (Copleston, 1956). God is the principle force that makes things move and denying his presence will be denying the fact that things do move and if things do move, it is God who makes them move.

Kenny contends that Aquinas in his first argument depends on the causation of Aristotle. According to his analysis, the cause, change must have a property that will bring the change. For example, for something to become really hot, the thing that cause this change must have the property of heat, despite this argument, the research done on several things have proven this otherwise, for example, the grain that result of cow fat is not itself fat, microwaves have the potential to generate heat without themselves being hot (Kenney, 2008). Kenny does not consider this and he goes on to explain that Aquinas does not provide a straightforward metaphysical analysis to explain his arguments; he says that Aquinas argument presumes the classical and discredits the need to apply physics.

The first challenge cited by people who object God’s existence arises on the issue by saying that everything requires to have a cause (Kenney, 2008). Anthony Kenney contends that despite the perceptions that things might actually cause one another, it can be argued that the cause of events happens by mere chance and cannot be any way connected to the continuous link of having a first cause. He further says “people cannot explain the things that have a first cause; there is a possibility that things actually go back in the infinitum”. Kenney further says that everything cannot be traced back to one single cause; there can be many alternatives for the first cause meaning that God cannot simply be the only factor that explains the existence of the universe and therefore, he possibly does not exist.

Aquinas contends that an infinite chain of things in motion and the things that cause others to be in motion cannot be correct (Davies, 1993). If there was an existence of infinite chains or regression in the things that have motion, and things that make others to be in motion, then it will be hard to account for the motion that is observed by people (Copleston, 1956). Moving back to find the cause of the things in motion would be ad infinitum because we will still need to trace what caused motion in the cause. The cause and the effect relationship among the things that are moved and those that are moving must all have a place where they start. During certain periods, all relationships must get determined. There should always be a first cause, which makes other things to fall in motion; this can only be possible through God (Kretzman & Stump, 1993).

In nature, it is possible to observe things, possible to be and not to be as they enter and leave existence. These things could not always exist, therefore if it is possible for all things not to exist, then at some time nothing did exist, if there was nothing that existed before, and then there is nothing that would exist even now (Kenney, 2008). This is because all things that exist, needs an existence of something that already existed. It is not right to claim that nothing exists even now. In this sense, it can be argued that not all beings are possible, but there is always something, the existence of which is necessary. It is not possible to see the infinite series of things that cause motion; this creates a position that makes the element a significant part of it.

In conclusion, despite existing objections by Kenny and Davies concerning Aquinas motion, Aquinas proves in his argument that God indeed does exist. If God does not exist, then it would only mean that we do not exist because he is the first cause and makes things move. God’s existence cannot be doubted in any way, though there are many objections to this fact, the fact that truth is self-evident also make this justifiable. No person in the world can admit the opposite of things, which are self-evident. The universe was made, through God together with everything, which is in it; God’s presence cannot be deni



Copleston, F. C. (1956). Aquinas: An Introduction to the Life and Work of the Great Medieval Thinker. New York: Penguin Books.

Davies, B. (1993). The thought of Thomas Aquinas. New York : Clarendon .

Davies, B. (2014). Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae: A Guide and Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kenney, A. (2008). Five Ways: St Thomas Aquinas. New York: Routledge.

Kretzman, N., & Stump, E. (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.