Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on Cyber Bullying

Annotated Bibliography: Cyber Bullying

Adams, F. D., & Lawrence, G. J. (2011). Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 4-13.

Adams and Lawrence authored about cyber bullying based on a scientific view. As a result, they ensured the journal was published in a format supporting the use of scientific facts and style to discuss cyber bullying. Consequently, delineated methods were used to collect the data ensuring definitions are specified and the conclusions based on disclosed data results. The journal comprises diverse interesting quotes. For example, it asserts that the Center for Disease Control provided a report cyber bullying as a continuous event occurring at all levels across the educational environment. This quote is interesting because the Center for Disease Control has conducted a research study on cyber bullying in attempts to suggest it is a negative phenomenon spreading in an outbreak pattern.

The authors therefore conducted more research regarding cyber bullying in order to affirm the delinquent and unethical behavior ought to be defined as a contagious illness. The authors are however keen on asserting that, the data applied in authoring the journal article does not support previous sets of data applied to suggest cyber or any other form of decreases as children grow and mature. Thus, the authors were keen in asserting that cyber bullying is not likely to decrease as grade levels increase. Thus, this journal article asserts that cyber bullying is a scientific behavior that cannot be ignored. This is because the behavior develops among social media users with adverse behaviors promoting delinquent and unethical activities across the internet. These activities cannot sort themselves out prompting researchers to develop short and long term scientific measures that can be applied to disapprove and resolve cyber bullying in the long run.

Bacchini, D., Esposito, G., & Affuso, G. (2009). Social Experience and School Bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(1), 17-32.

Bacchini, Esposito, and Affuso conducted the social psychological research study across various communities in order to examine the relationship between cyber bullying and various aspects of urban environments. They focused on the fact that cyber bullying mainly occurs in schools. As a result, the participants of the study had to live and go to school in order to relate with the adverse effects of cyber bullying. During the research, Bacchini, Esposito, and Affuso discovered that cyber bullying is significantly associated with how social media users perceive the exposure they acquire through diverse platforms such as Twitter and Facebook.

For example, some social media users do not believe social media exposure can be dangerous and violent. This is because they have not witnessed situations during which community members including students, teachers, and parents have been adversely affected by cyber bullying.  Although Bacchini, Esposito, and Affuso focused on cyber bullying among school attendants, they were also keen in asserting this unethical and delinquent behavior also affects other members of the community. Thus, the authors conducted the research in order to determine appropriate interventional strategies that can be applied to eliminate and prevent cyber bullying in schools in order to protect communities from adverse, dangerous, and violent exposure acquired from using social media.  The research therefore concludes that, resolving cyber bullying ought to start in the classroom and extend to the broader community and neighborhoods.

 

 

Campbell, M. A. (2005) Cyber Bullying: An Old Problem in a New Guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 15(1), 68-76.

This journal article was authored by Campbell in order to address the adverse issues allied to cyber bullying. Campbell believes cyber bullying causes is a traditional issue presented in the modern communities due to advancing technologies. Thus, using social media has enhanced opportunities encouraging cyber bullying activities to occur and damage the new and diverse forms of communication hence, facilitating social violence and harassment. The author published the article through the guidance and counseling journal in order to assert that cyber bullying ought to be addressed as a social menace affecting communities on national and international levels.

Campbell was however keen in noticing that, cyber bullying as an international social menace has not been addressed adequately. This is because very few researches have been conducted in order to determine causes of cyber bullying in attempts of formulating and implementing measures to reduce and prevent the violent and dangerous activities. For example, Campbell notes cyber bullying threatens teenagers and young adults as they are often exposed to abuse, discrimination, violent, harassment, and other forms of activities and behaviors hindering equality during social integration. As a result, more researches ought to be conducted in order to formulate measures that can be implemented across various social media venues in order to prevent and intervene against cyber bullying.

According to Campbell, there are four areas researchers ought to focus on in attempt to reduce and prevent cyber bullying. Campbell named the areas as; supervision, awareness raising, supervision, and whole school policies. Thus, the main area to focus on in addressing cyber bullying ought to involve supervision of social media platforms encouraging cyber bullying.  Through this article, the author encourages traditional face-to- face meetings with persons engaging in cyber bullying activities. This is because it will provide a researcher with the opportunity to discover and report the cyber bully in order to formulate and implement interventional measures preventing cyber bullying in the future. Campbell also noted that, teenagers and adolescents should be discouraged from believing that reporting cyber bullies will render them victims. Instead, they should be encouraged and supported in order to ensure they engage in preventing cyber bullying with support from parents and teachers without their efforts being trivialized. Campbell concludes that, cyber bullying is an increasing predicament among adolescents, teenagers and young adults. It should therefore be addressed and prevented through use of practical and viable intervention measures in order to ensure social media platforms are utilized to promote equality and social integration.

Chibbaro, J. S. (2007). School Counselors and the Cyber bully: Interventions and Implications. Professional School Counseling, (11)1, 65-67.

Chibbaro asserts that, traditional bullying behaviors ought to be categorized into two broad categories of behavior. The categories are namely direct and indirect bullying. Chibbaro defines direct bullying as a physical nature undertaken by persons perpetrating pain to the victims. Conversely, indirect bullying is defined as an activity undertaken by persons relying on behaviors such as hitting, shoving, tripping, verbal threats, and stabbing in order to inflict pain on the victims. The most common indirect and direct bullying activities include behaviors such as blackmail, social exclusion, and spread of rumors.

Chibbaro therefore attempts to determine how male and female bullies partake in the cyber bullying menace witnessed by social media users. For example, the author asserts that male cyber bullies often engage in direct bullying as they have physical strength. Conversely, female bullies tend to engage in indirect bullying as they are able to devise measures inflicting physical, emotional, psychological, and mental pain to the victims. Thus, direct and indirect cyber bullying behaviors such as flaming should be defined as arguments among social media users through use of rude, vulgar, and threatening languages and insults. For examples, when a social media user is denigrated, harassed or socially alienated, this ought to account for direct cyber bullying. This form of cyber bullying is also characterized as victimization of social media users coupled with online harassment. Online harassment is undertaken by social media users constantly sending hurtful messages across diverse forms of technologies leading to online exclusion occurring mainly through rejection. For example, peer groups engaging in cyber bullying will ignore, reject, and alienate a member from technological communications. Conversely, students can result to denigration of teachers among other employees in the learning institution due to anger, malice, and ignorance in order to ridicule and damage the victims’ reputations.

The author therefore seeks to assert that, bullying and cyber bullying ought to be used to summarize diverse range of behaviors that are identified negatively. They can be identified negatively through use of social and legal measures. This will ensure the victims are justified in seeking redress for the ills done to them. Consequently, more complex adverse results due to cyber bullying can be predicted and prevented through implementation of policies preventing social media users from being abused, harassed, assaulted, stalked, slandered, and violated. This is because technologies are still expanding and advancing providing cyber bullies with new ways of harassing the online communities. Thus, the digital world ought to formulate new and advanced laws and social measures aimed at preventing cyber bullying in the present and future.

Friesen, A., Jonsson, A., & Persson, C. (2007). Adolescents’ Perception of Bullying: Who is the Victim? Who is the Bully? What can be done to Stop Bullying? Winter, (42)168, 749-761.

The study was conducted in order to describe adolescents’ perceptions and experiences with regards to cyber bullying. The authors had to acquire the participants’ thoughts with regards to why children and adolescents are victims and perpetrators of cyber bullying. For example, the authors had to determine what the participants believe cyber bullies are and why they should be stopped and punished. They were also requested to provide their personal experiences with regards to cyber bullying during their school years. This, the study comprising a group of one hundred and nineteen high school students with a mean age of 17.1 provided the following results. At least thirty nine percent of the participating adolescents reported being victims of cyber bullying at some time during their school years. Consequently, twenty eight percent confirmed being perpetrators or cyber bullies. Lastly, thirteen percent confirmed being both cyber bullies as well as the victims. The authors therefore had to determine the ages of most students that had been victims of cyber bullying and discovered they ranged between seven and nine years old.

Cyber bullies affirmed that, they engaged in the delinquent behavior when aged between ten and twelve years old.  They provide various reasons for engaging in cyber bullying including the need to harass and alienate a person with a uniquely different appearance. Thus, they confirmed cyber bullies target victims with a low self-esteem as they can easily inflict emotional, physical, and psychological pain. The authors also sought to determine factors leading a cyber bully to stop engaging in the unethical behavior. Most of the participants asserted that, cyber bullies fear when the victim stands up for himself/herself. This report was therefore authored to determine how cyber bullying occurs especially in school settings. It also provides reasons encouraging and supporting cyber bullies to engage in the behavior. Consequently, it provides the victims of cyber bullying with measures they can undertake in order to stop being attacked and harassed across the online community.

Gillespie, A. A. (2006). Cyber Bullying and Harassment of Teenagers: The Legal Response. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 28(2), 123-136.

This journal article is vital as it provides various interesting responses to undertake in addressing and resolving illegal cyber-activities. This article defines cyber bullying as the act of using another person’s private information in order to inflict harm and damage their online reputation. For example, when a person’s phone number is included in an online game without their permission, this amounts to cyber bullying. This is because the phone number can be used by other social media users to achieve banal humor. This often results to emotional and psychological pain being inflicted on the victim as internet websites are especially accessed by sexual predators.

The journal article is therefore authored to raise awareness among social media users. It educates them in acknowledging that, illegal cyber activities can be prosecuted. It is however vital to ensure every social media user is protected from cyber bullies. For example, parents and guardians ought to monitor online activities undertaken by their children. This will reduce the number of cyber bullies hence, protecting victims from undergoing pain, embarrassment, and harassment due to use of insults, threats, and abusive languages. Parents should also protect children from intensely misguided online individuals such as sexual predators targeting innocent victims in order to inflict pain.  Ultimately, the social media platforms should not disintegrate the socio-dynamics put in place to achieve social integration, acceptance, and equality.

As a result, laws have been formulated and implemented in order to advocate against cyber bullying behaviors. They advocate for freedom but also the will to engage in legally acceptable online activities that are also socially suitable among social media users. Thus, persons who experience cyber bullying but do not regard it as unwanted or a form of violence cannot be regarded as victims. This is because they regard the behaviors as acceptable as they do not cause physical, social, reputational, and economic losses. Thus, the journal article is authored to assert that, any form of online bullying should not be classified under cyber bullying unless it is unwanted.  Thus, the process of making legal proclamations around cyber bullying scenarios ought to be done with a generous heap of qualifying languages.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, W. (2012). State Cyber Bullying Laws: A Brief Review of State Cyber Bullying Laws and Policies. Cyber Bullying Research Centre.

This article provides a brief summary of the laws existing against cyber bullying across various States. It includes a table of data comprising of forty nine States with laws against any form of bullying occurring through cyber activities. There is however only fourteen States that have included the term cyber bullying in the laws. This article therefore affirms that, some States do not have specific laws addressing cyber bullying laws. It however also asserts that, cyber bullying should neither be ignored nor assumed as it has attributed to various forms of pain inflicted and experienced by the victims.

The article is therefore very useful as it helps in finding out how many States have formulated and implemented legal measures against cyber bullying. This is because cyber bullying needs to be addressed and resoled across all the States through use of accurate and up-to-date information with regards to existing laws against cyber bullying. The article also seeks to affirm that, the issue of cyber bullying has impacted communities in the country adversely and diversely. Thus, anti-cyber bullying laws ought to be formulated and implemented transversely the country across all States.

Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Purcell, K., Rainie, L., Smith, A., & Zichuhr, K. (2011). Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites. Pew-Research Centre Report.

This report was authored by Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, Aaron Smith, Kristen Purcell, Kathryn Zichuhr, and Lee Rainie. They researched effects of social networking sites among teenagers. The authors commenced the research after discovering teenagers are being exposed to negative behaviors through social media usage.  This is because teenagers often navigate challenging social interactions online influencing their senses of self worth, esteem and confidence as digital citizens. The teenagers however lack guidance and counseling in order to employ interventional measures ensuring they stand up for themselves in order to prevent cyber bullying from occurring.

The authors therefore engaged participants mainly teenagers in a survey in order to write a report on the various online experiences they have witnessed allied to cyber bullying. The survey sought to define cyber bullying as use of online cruelty that can be personally felt and observed from incident to resolution among the teenagers. The survey was conducted in order to determine how teenagers become either cyber bullies or the victims. The authors believed the information acquired would be sufficient to provide general advice aimed at achieving online safety and responsibility. They also believed specific advice on how to handle a cyber bully and online cruelty across social networking sites would be acquired and implemented. They discovered that, persons from minority communities and races were victims of cyber bullying. The perpetrators were mainly teenagers seeking to inflict emotional and psychological pain against their enemies and competitors without realizing the amount of damage and harm they were causing. The authors therefore asserted that, cyber bullying should not be ignored or assumed. Teenagers should be advised to steer away from cyber bullying as it can have permanently devastating results on the victims.

Li, Q. (2006).  Cyber Bullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences. School Psychology International, 27(2), 157-170.

The author conducted a study in order to acquire results aimed at revealing that, several students can identify a person who has been a victim of cyber bullying. The results also revealed that, over a quarter of the students in various learning institutions have been cyber bullies. For example, one in six students among the participants of the study had cyber bullied others. Thus, the author asserts that, the vast majority of the people across the world who have been victims of cyber bullying can identify the cyber bully. This is because the perpetrators are often close to the victim such a classmate or workmate. Thus, everyone should be aware that cyber bullying is a behavior affecting people in the real world. If a person either suspects or is assured another individual is a cyber bully or a victim of cyber bullying should therefore report to the right organizations, departments, or institutions. People should not choose to stay quiet but instead, they should inform someone in order for legal measures to be taken against the cyber bully.  This will ensure cyber bullying does not keep rising in order to safeguard peoples’ physical and emotionally health and wellbeing.

Snakenborg, V. A., & Gable, R. (2011). Cyber Bullying: Prevention and Intervention to Protect our Children and Youth. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

According to Snakenborg, bullying is a topic that causes concerns among parents and educators. The increased usage of social media and technology available to children and youth has therefore heightened these concerns due to development of cyber bullying. This article therefore addresses the difficulties in enforcing and intervening against cyber bullying due to the anonymity of cyber bullies and sometimes the victims. Snakenborg differentiates bullying from cyber bullying by asserting the latter involves the use of technology in order to inflict harm and damages on the victim. Policies and laws intended to protect against cyber bullying however continue to lack the ability to be enforced.  This is because cyber bullying can utilize chat rooms, emails, YouTube, cell phones, instant messaging, virtual learning environments, and extensively social media. Thus, anti-cyber bullying programs based on practical beliefs and logic developed scientifically to identify effective prevention and intervention practices should be enforced. Consequently, parental supervision of social media platforms can intervene against cyber bullying behaviors.

 

References

Adams, F. D., & Lawrence, G. J. (2011). Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 4-13.

Bacchini, D., Esposito, G., & Affuso, G. (2009). Social Experience and School Bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(1), 17-32.

Campbell, M. A. (2005) Cyber Bullying: An Old Problem in a New Guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 15(1), 68-76.

Chibbaro, J. S. (2007). School Counselors and the Cyber bully: Interventions and Implications. Professional School Counseling, (11)1, 65-67.

Friesen, A., Jonsson, A., & Persson, C. (2007). Adolescents’ Perception of Bullying: Who is the Victim? Who is the Bully? What can be done to Stop Bullying? Winter, (42)168, 749-761.

Gillespie, A. A. (2006). Cyber Bullying and Harassment of Teenagers: The Legal Response. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 28(2), 123-136.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, W. (2012). State Cyber Bullying Laws: A Brief Review of State Cyber Bullying Laws and Policies. Cyber Bullying Research Centre.

Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Purcell, K., Rainie, L., Smith, A., & Zichuhr, K. (2011). Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites. Pew-Research Centre Report.

Li, Q. (2006).  Cyber Bullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences. School Psychology International, 27(2), 157-170.

Snakenborg, V. A., & Gable, R. (2011). Cyber Bullying: Prevention and Intervention to Protect our Children and Youth. Routledge, Taylor & Francis