How criminal profiling assist in apprehending murders in the US

How criminal profiling assist in apprehending murders in the United States

In many countries including Canada and the United States of America, some form of criminal profiling are undertaken to assist in the investigations of serial crimes. The profiler is an investigator, or a professional psychologist who examines evidence presented from the scenes of crime, from the victims as well as from the witnesses to aid in constructing certain facts using psychopathology,personal traits, behaviour, as well as demographic description of the criminal who committed the crime. Though criminal profiling can be an effective tool in the investigation of criminal activities, it still remains controversial as to its effectiveness and accuracy. One advantage of criminal profiling is that it helps the investigators in narrowing down the field of investigation, by providing the specific characteristics or identity of the criminal. The problem with the profiling system is that it does not indicate a specific person, but rather it depicts the kind of person who is most likely to have committed the criminal offense, based on behavioural and personality traits.  Through profiling, an investigator is able to identify writers of anonymous letters as well as people who are likely to have made threats of violence. Generally, psychological and criminal profiling techniques are two of the methods that are employed in profiling. This being the case, the aim of this paper is to write an annotated bibliography on how criminal profiling assist in apprehending murders in the United States.

Ibe, P., Ochie, C., &Obiyan, E. (2012). Racial Misuse of “Criminal Profiling” By Law Enforcement: Intentions and Implications. African Journal of Criminology & Justice Studies, 6.

This paper aims at identifying the critical issues that are related to criminal profiling in the United States. The value and development of criminal profiling has been discussed in depth, as well as the misuse of the criminal profiling approach. The journal explores how the law enforcing agents in America misuse the profiling privileges on the African Americans. There is a racial misuse in criminal profiling by the law enforcing agencies in criminal cases, making the investigation futile as in some instances, the culprits are released by the courts for lack of evidence. This explains the influence of racial bias on criminal proceedings. This source is important as it indicates the issues regarding criminal profiling as well as the possible problems that may arise in the process. The article fits into the research as it explains the downside of criminal profiling.

Vettor, S. L. (2012). Offender Profiling: a review, critique, and an investigation of the influence of context, perception, and motivations on sexual offending (Doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingham).

This article explains the definition and the contextual meaning of offender profiling. The author tries to explain the utility of the offenders profile in predicting the outcome of the investigation. It also explains the contents of the profile to clarify whether they had any backing. The paper explains the   linkages that exists between two cases, indicating that there exists some underlying behaviour consistency across several offenses and this can help in the collection of evidences across different crimes, thus increasing evidence against an offender. Various approaches are used in profiling including typographical approaches, criminal investigative approach, theory led, statistical approach, and clinical approach among others. It also offers criticism of the profiling method as well as suggesting possible alternatives to profiling. this source is important as it gives the various approaches that can be applied when profiling and the possible criticism that may arise as a result.

Turvey, B. E. (2011). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

This book introduces the history of criminal profiling. It also explains the various approaches that can be used to explain profiling, that is the use of science, logic as well as cognition. The various alternatives that can be used to identify criminals apart from the profiling methods have been highlighted, citing their importance. The book has also tried to expound on the contribution of the mental health professionals to the criminal profiling. In the book, the various characteristics that can be attributed to the criminal of various crimes including murder, rape and domestic homicide have been identified. Other parts of the book explains the analysis of crime scenes as well as the professional issues impacting criminal profiling that includes ethics and the condition of the profiler as well as issues regarding its admissibility. The book is important as it explores criminal profiling from all angles.

Torres, A. N., Boccaccini, M. T., & Miller, H. A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(1), 51.

The aim of this article was aimed at identifying the perceptions of the  psychiatrists as well as the forensic psychologists in predicting the validity and utility of the criminal profiling.  The article indicate that the survey that was carried out indicated that majority of the interviewed had prior knowledge of profiling. Of the surveyed, fewer than 25% indicated that they believed that profiling was scientifically valid and reliable. 40% of the surveyed believed that criminal investigative analysis deemed scientifically valid and reliable. However, the scientific aspect did not have supporting evidence, though it was largely accepted that criminal profiling was important in law enforcement. The authors of the article admit that the profiled evidence, unless supported by other evidence may not be admissible in courts. They also cite the various errors that may arise out of the profiling. This paper is important as it explains the experts view on criminal profiling.

Turvey, B. E. (2008). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Criminal profiling has been practised for many years. This book tries to explain the transformation or improvement of the profiling system from that which relates to evidence based to criminal profiling that embraces the modern scientific methods in the examination, and the interpretation of behavioural evidences. The focus of the book entails the profiling as an investigative and forensic process that helps in solving criminal cases through an honest understanding of the crime, the nature and behaviour of offenders/criminals. The book therefore outlines some of the principles and measures and standards for the behaviour evidence analysis, and how the application of scientific theory can be applied to help profile a criminal. The information from this book is important as it helps in identifying the scientific ways that an investigator can use and apply when profiling a criminal as well as during scene analysis.

Douglas, J., Burgess, A. W., Burgess, A. G., &Ressler, R. K. (2013). Crime classification manual: A standard system for investigating and classifying violent crime. John Wiley & Sons.

This book indicates the findings from the national crime survey across the United States. It does not really address the criminal profiling but addresses key points and questions that a criminal profiler ought to consider before undertaking the profiling. This entails understanding the crime characteristic to assist in the decision process. It entails victimology where the history of the victim is identified. The crime scenes are also identified in terms of environment, place and time. It also identifies the crime scenes, in terms of the items left or missing on the crime scene, the body disposition as well as other crime scenes indicators. With this information prior, an investigator is able to know how to profile a given criminal. The book offers a supporting role in the criminal profiling.

Burgess, A. W., Ressler, R. K., & Douglas, J. E. (2014). Sexual homicide: Patterns and motives- paperback. S.l.: Free Press.

In general terms, this book is trying to highlight the patterns and motives of criminals in sexual homicide. It explains the characteristics of men who commit serial homicides in the USA. It also tries to explain the motives behind the killings. In this the crime scene patterns is highlighted, other violent acts that they may have done as well as the motivations that prompts the criminals to undertake the repetitive murders. Data and findings have been represented as well as the implications in the undertakings. The book also explains the behavioural characteristics of the offender as well as the thinking of the same. The success story of the profiled cases as well as the various location of the where profilers are located is highlighted. Lastly, the methods that are used when profiling have been identified and discussed.

Petherick, W. (2013). Profiling and serial crime: Theoretical and practical issues. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

This book explains profiling in details. In particular, it explains the promises and successes that criminal profiling can bring to the investigators. It also explains the definition and purpose of profiling criminals as well as the shortfalls of the undertaking. It therefore provides a theoretical and practical application of the profiling topic. Some parts of the book have been designed to examine in details the serial crime that includes murder, cyber bullying, arson and stalking among others. At the same time, the latest information on criminal profiling have been discussed. The book also describes the forensic analysis surrounding the crime as well as the process of profiling as well as the victimology characteristics that includes lifestyle, friends and other demographic features and hobbies. The crime analysis has also been discussed, as well as the actual criminal profile.

Bourque, J., LeBlanc, S., Utzschneider, A., & Wright, C. (2009). The Canadian Human Rights Commission or the Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

The article provided by these scholars for the Canadian high commission explores among others the benefits of criminal profiling. In particular, the article has proposed behavioural profiling, where the characteristics of the profilers is identified and the international use of profiling. The article has also talked of geographic profiling as well as the perspective profiling and the implication of the approach.

Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., &Gendreau, P. (2008). The Criminal Profiling Illusion What’s Behind the Smoke and Mirrors? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(10), 1257-1276.

This paper argues and doubts the effectiveness of the profiling method. The article indicates that there lack theoretical backing or strong empirical evidence to support the profiling. The article indicates that the perception of people on the success of the criminal profiling is influenced by various anecdotes and the notion that profiling works, as well as the disproportionate emphasis on predictions. The articles  has expounded on the possible errors that could lead to misinformed judgement including the reasoning errors, in other instances, the profiler may create meaning out of an ambiguous fact, the imitation of a good idea as well as the inferring facts from fiction. In conclusion, the author has supported with facts the shortcomings of criminal profiling thus advising against its use as an investigative tool for the reason that it lacks scientific backing.

Alison, L., Goodwill, A., Almond, L., Heuvel, C., &Winter, J. (2010). Pragmatic solutions to offender profiling and behavioural investigative advice. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15(1), 115-132.

This paper discusses the evolution of offender profiling and highlights three options that emerged between the 1970s the 90s to address criminal profiling. These profiling options include the investigative profiling, the clinical and the statistical profiling methods. The paper has highlighted the traditional profiling approaches, as well as the modern approaches. The behavioural investigative advisors have given their insights in criminal profiling. The various approaches have been discussed with their importance and efficacy in criminal profiling. Theories linking the profiling data from various scenes as well as the risk assessments have been evaluated.

 

           

 

 

 

 

References

Alison, L., Goodwill, A., Almond, L., Heuvel, C., &Winter, J. (2010). Pragmatic solutions to offender profiling and behavioural investigative advice. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15(1), 115-132.

Bourque, J., LeBlanc, S., Utzschneider, A., & Wright, C. (2009). The Canadian Human Rights Commission or the Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

Burgess, A. W., Ressler, R. K., & Douglas, J. E. (2014). Sexual homicide: Patterns and motives- paperback. S.l.: Free Press.

Douglas, J., Burgess, A. W., Burgess, A. G., &Ressler, R. K. (2013). Crime classification manual: A standard system for investigating and classifying violent crime. John Wiley & Sons.

Ibe, P., Ochie, C., &Obiyan, E. (2012). Racial Misuse of “Criminal Profiling” By Law Enforcement: Intentions and Implications. African Journal of Criminology & Justice

Petherick, W. (2013). Profiling and serial crime: Theoretical and practical issues. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., &Gendreau, P. (2008). The Criminal Profiling Illusion What’s Behind the Smoke and Mirrors?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(10), 1257-1276. Studies, 6.

Torres, A. N., Boccaccini, M. T., & Miller, H. A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(1), 51.

Turvey, B. E. (2008). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Turvey, B. E. (2011). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Vettor, S. L. (2012). Offender Profiling: a review, critique, and an investigation of the influence of context, perception, and motivations on sexual offending (Doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingha