How Do Different Societies Manage Social Conflict Without Violence?

How Do Different Societies Manage Social Conflict Without Violence?

Search Strategy

The articles used in this review were searched by entering keywords into Google search and pressing the search button to see the articles that could be generated by the search engine. The key words used were “scholarly articles on how different societies manage social conflict without violence”. In addition, the Google scholar website was searched for articles on the topic using the key words “How different societies manage social conflict without violence”, while refining the search parameters to ensure that only articles that were uploaded from 2005 onwards were returned by Google scholar. Searching for the articles through Google search was important in helping to find a wide range of articles that were not limited to those in academic journals, hence enriching and expanding the resources available for review and selection. The use of Google scholar to search for the relevant articles was important in helping to find refereed articles that have a sound academic basis, which are essential in providing a balanced and often empirically backed sources. The articles found by Google search and Google scholar were then analyzed thematically to ensure they contained relevant information before being chosen for review.


Source Description

The first source, Democracy and Conflict Management is an article written by Sisk (2003) for the Beyond Intractability project run by the University of Colorado to examine how conflict can be managed creatively without the need for violence. The source was chosen because it provides important information on the use of alternative ways of conflict resolution, especially the use of democracy in the field of conflict resolution. The source has practical examples of how communities have managed to resolve conflict and diffuse tensions that could have otherwise led to the shedding of blood through the use of violence.

The second source, Reducing Violence: Applying the Human Needs Theory to the Conflict in Chechnya is a scholarly article written by KÖK (2007) for the Turkish Weekly Journal providing a theoretical framework that can be used in the management of conflict and avoidance of violence. The source was chosen because it provides a scholarly approach towards conflict management and resolution, showing how tried and tested theories can be used to manage conflict. The article provides a practical example of how what may appear as an abstract theory has practical applications in the management of conflict and reduction of violence between communities. In addition, the article provides sound information considering that it appears in a refereed journal hence it is likely to be used as a reference material in conflict management.

The third source, Volunteerism, Cohesion and Conflict Management (2011) is a chapter in a UN report on the state of world volunteerism with a focus on the role that volunteerism has to play and has played in the management of conflict, and as a route for diffusing tensions between communities. The article was chosen because it provides a holistic view of volunteerism and how it has been used around the world, providing concrete examples of how volunteerism has been a tool for the promotion of peaceable means of conflict resolution and de-escalation of violence.

Source Evaluation

The first source is relevant because it provides information on how long-running conflicts can be resolved, and provides the example of South Africa, which was able to end its white-black conflict peacefully with the introduction of democracy that led to the de-escalation of violence and tensions. The source is credible because the information it provides is backed with empirical evidence showing that the approach advocated has worked in some areas. The author ensures the objectivity of the article by also examining the reasons why democracy may not help to resolve conflicts and then proposes how the challenges can be tackled. This source is online hence is easily accessible through the link provided below.

The second article is credible because it is a refereed article appearing in an academic journal and hence it can be safely assumed that the information provided by the article is factual. The article is relevant to the study of the topic because it provides a theoretical framework that can be used to examine conflict resolution initiatives as well as one that can provide a foundation upon which such initiatives can be based. The article also provides a practical application of the theory advanced, by examining the Chechnya conflict and its potential resolution through the human relations theory. The article is objective because it exhaustively examines the strengths and weaknesses of the human relations theory, and is easily accessible either through the printed version in the journal or through the one posted on the internet.

The third article is credible because it has been prepared by and for the UN, hence it is expected that high standards of information use and disclosure are observed. The information is relevant to the topic because it provides an alternative way through which conflict can be managed, hence enriching the sources used in this review. The article is not very objective because it is mainly positive, focused on the potential of volunteerism in conflict management without empirically determining whether such volunteerism efforts actually work. The article is accessible easily through the UN publications as well as through the online pdf posted by the organization.

These articles provide a rich and varied approach to conflict management, examining theories of conflict management as well as providing other alternative approaches to the non-violent management and resolution of conflict.



Works Cited

Sisk, Timothy. “Democracy and Conflict Management.” Beyond Intractability August 2003. Web. 20 March 2015. <>

KÖK, Havva. “Reducing Violence: Applying the Human Needs Theory to the Conflict in Chechnya.” Review of International Law and Politics, 3.11 (2007): 89-108. Print. <>

Volunteerism, Cohesion and Conflict Management. 2011. Web. 20 March 2015. <>