Jacobs, James B, and Kimberly Potter. Hate Crimes: Criminal Law & Identity Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Web.
The authors in this text establish the facts under which hate crime occurs. Their notion in this subject is that hate crime evolved after the 1980’s, and mostly occurred as a product of racial differences, gender, and sexual orientation. Their view is that such crimes occurred mostly in countries like the United States, which are composed of multiethnic and multi-religious societies, with the incidences taking shape through anti-Semitic, xenophobic, and homophobic violence that is criminal in nature.
The main ideas expressed by the authors involve the origin of hate crime, motivation, and criminal laws established to deal with these criminal acts. They also highlight their knowledge in the interpretation of crime.
The authors also provide strong theoretical evidence regarding the motivation and epidemic of hate crimes, with major legislations instituted in countries like the US. They state that hate crime is motivated through social fabrics with advocacy groups and media being the most proponents.
This article is beneficial to the research as it establishes a wider perspective on hate crimes, its history, epidemics, forms, and legislative attempts that have been initiated to curb this criminal act.
Broyles, Janell. Hate Crimes. New York: Rosen Pub, 2009. Print.
The author’s notion on hate crime is that it is a universal phenomenon that is based on human emotions, and it has nothing to do with the person committing the act. The author also illustrates that people feel hatred for others in one way or the other, but the hate crime occurs when a party uses the act in a criminal manner.
The author in this book focuses on the wider perspective of crime. The main ideas expressed by the author touches on the roots of hate crime, its epidemic, and fundamental laws of the world aimed at tackling the crime.
He illustrates his knowledge in hate crimes in the US, the entire globe, and the future of criminal laws that are being established to correct and reduce these criminal acts.
The author’s literature is beneficial as it envisages the future of hate crime, its prevention in the US, and the world using legislation. This illustrates a wider understanding on hate crime in the future and prospects in its reduction.
Bleich, Erik. “The Rise of Hate Speech and Hate Crime Laws in Liberal Democracies.” Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 37.6 (2011): 917-934. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 June 2015.
The author’s perception is that criminal laws that have been instituted in most liberal democracies tend to do harm than good to people. He examines the effects of these criminal laws in some democratic worlds, and the effects of legislation and enforcement in doing good and harm in various countries.
The main ideas expressed touches on how legislation in various democratic countries has been argued to have promoted hate crime in the precept of democracy. He supports his claim by several legislations and rulings in the Supreme Court of the United States.
The author also provides theoretical arguments towards this by examining certain rulings, which he thinks that have gone against certain principles governing certain countries. He states that certain acts are being fuelled by the legislations, which some territories have strongly advocated, for instance, freedom based on the liberal principles.
The established research is useful since it enables individuals to have an in-depth understanding on how legislation and enactments of law can accelerate certain crimes. It also substantiates its principles of freedom and opinion based on the governing principles, and how the same can influence certain vices.