Sample Annotated Bibliography on Northeastern Health Services

Northeastern Health Services

Anwar, R. & Ahmed, I. (2012). A Unified Comparison of CDMA EVDO Key Performance Parameters in Multi-Vendor Environment. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 3(4): 209-225.

The article is about EV-DO, a technology that allows access to the internet over cell phone towers. It provides an overview of speeds of the technology, comparing it with previous technology. EV-DO, an acronym for Evolution Data Optimized offers 3G speeds via cellular network at high speeds. It allows access to the internet with near broadband speed at any point with good cellular network.

Given that most NHS sites are within reach of existing cell towers, EV-DO offers a viable solution to the health facilities. Given that it offers speeds at broadband speeds, this presents an opportunity for NHS to exploit for their internet access. Their proximity to existing cell towers makes it even more viable as they will be able to get good cellular signals for use with the technology.

Cable Television Laboratories (2009). Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, DOCSIS 3.0. : Physical Layer Specification. Cable Television Inc. retrieved from http://www.cablelabs.com/wp-content/uploads/specdocs/CM-SP-PHYv3.0-I08-090121.pdf

The article is about Docsis 3.0, a technology that allows cable companies to increase internet speeds in response to fiber-optic connections offered by Verizon. Although cable companies customarily provided TV services, they went into internet service provision, offering faster speeds than DSL. Docsis 3.0 is taunted as an inexpensive technology that will offer faster internet speeds for cable users.

With such fast internet connection technology, and given their proximity to cable services, NHS has a solution through cable. Such a technology will allow the company to not only have faster internet speeds for sending and receiving their diagnoses, but also enhance their communication with other facilities over the internet.

FCC. Types of Broadband Connections. FCC. Retrieved from http://www.broadband.gov/broadband_types.html#satellite

This article provides an overview of broadband connections. Of interest, here is Broadband over power line. This relatively new technology delivers internet connection over low and medium voltage electric power distribution network. Therefore, although they provide power, the network can distribute broadband connection with speeds comparable to DSL and cable connection. Given that NHS already uses power from the main power distribution network, it can easily tap into this technology and use the connection for sending and receiving their imaging and diagnoses over the internet.

Hulleat, R. S. (2002). FCC orders phone companies to share high-speed Internet access. Information Intelligence Online Newsletter, 21(1):7-9

This article is talks about the FCC rules on local exchange carriers providing telephone services to their customers to share their telephone lines with providers of high-speed internet. Telephone lines are largely used for voice telephone services. Telephone lines, also called Digital Subscriber Line, have the capability of providing both voice and data services without one interrupting the other, given that they (voice and data) use different bandwidths on the same telephone line. Given that the infrastructure is already in place, data providers using DSL can offer high-speed internet over the telephone wires at a lower cost, therefore driving down the cost of internet connection for subscribers.

Given that all NHS locations are within the reach of a landline telephone wiring company, it is possible to use the landline for high-speed internet connection. Additionally, being in remote areas, NHS can get higher bandwidth on the connection, since not many of the locals will be using their telephone lines for internet connection.

Jones, E. (2006). Introduction to DSL. Taylor & Francis Group.

This article provides an overview of the DSL technology. It additionally offers information on other alternative broadband access technologies. Known as Digital Subscriber Line, the technology allows data connections over regular telephone wires. Given that DSL offers high bandwidth connection over copper wire, it can work for NHS since the wire connections are already in the vicinity in NHS area of operation. DSL offers relatively high speeds of six Mbps, which is decent for the company’s needs of sending and receiving their imaging and diagnoses.

Los Angeles Times (2000). Excite Says it will Weigh Access Links other than Cable; Internet: Company Considers Offering High-speed Service on Phone Lines, Acknowledging Potential Customer Losses in 2002. Los Angeles Times

The article is about Excite, an internet service provider that considers offering internet connections to its customers over telephone lines. The new telephone lines, also known as Digital Subscriber Line, offer fast internet connection to customers over telephone lines.

DSL offers high bandwidth connection to homes and small businesses over the ordinary copper wire. Such high bandwidths allow users to use multimedia content on the web, including downloading and uploading large capacity data. This technology therefore offers a solution for NHS given that most of its locations are within reach of telephone wiring company. With speeds of up to 6.1 Mbps (Anderson, 2010), DSL offers a viable solution for NHS.

Network Business Weekly. (2014). AT&T; AT&T Enhances Local Wireless Network for Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta. Network Business Weekly

The article is about AT&T rolling out its 4g network during the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta. It explains AT&T’s 4G network coverage, launched in 2012. 4G connections are faster than 3G networks, offering up to 10 times more speed than the 3G networks, and use the Long Term Evolution technology. The technology uses cellular network to provide the internet connection with specifically made hardware recipients for the technology.

4G technology’s faster internet connection would be appropriate for NHS, given their proximity to cell towers. NHS would therefore only need to purchase the specialized equipment to access the technology. The hardware includes Wi-Fi hotspots, such as Karma’s LTE hotspot.

Singh, S. M. (2012). Broadband Over Power Lines: A White Paper. Newark, New Jersey: Ratepayer Advocate. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/rpa/BPLwhitepaper.pdf

This article provides an overview of BPL (Broadband over power line), other alternative broadband access methods, their advantages and disadvantages. It also provides some of the benefits and opportunities for using BPL. BPL technology provides broadband connection over regular power lines. Given that NHS is already connected to the power grid, BPL therefore offers a viable option for the company, given that only the hardware to convert the power lines into internet connection will be needed. With speeds of up to 100 Mbps (Singh, 2012), BPL therefore offers one of the fastest internet connection for NHS for sending and receiving their imaging and diagnose from partner health care facilities in New York.

Whitney, L. (2014). Karma’s 4G LTE hotspot lets you pay as you go. CNET. Retrieved from http://www.cnet.com/news/karmas-new-4g-lte-hotspot-lets-you-pay-as-you-go/

This article is about Karma’s Wi-Fi hotspot that uses 4G LTE technology for customers who do not want contracts. The article offers insight into the price of the hotspot, as well as monthly packages offered by the company for accessing the internet on the device. The device uses LTE, technology, currently the most popular 4G technology in the market adopted by many of the cellular service providers. The device uses cellular network to provide internet connection to its users. The gadget allows up to eight users, with 6-8 megabit per second download speed.

Given that the hotspot uses 4G technology, it offers fast internet connection speeds over cellular network. NHS can use this in sending and receiving their imaging files and diagnoses over the internet. The hotspot can be used to connect several devices, giving a wider range of access to devices, in addition to its portability.

Zhou, Z., Claypool, M. &Kinicki, R. (2012).Characterization of a 3G EV-Do Network-a Measurement Study. Worcester, MA: Worcester Polytechnic Institute

This article provides an in depth analysis of the EV-DO technology. This includes the performance measurements, data rate control, packet loss control among other details. It also provides findings of the measurement parameters of the technology. EV-DO is a 3G technology provided by cellular network providers over cellular towers. It is largely used on mobile phones, but with a PC card can be used to provide fast internet connection to PCs. Data speeds on the technology are dependent on a number of factors, however, with good cellular network connection, the technology offers fast internet speeds, much like broadband internet connection.

NHS’ proximity to cell towers makes EV-DO a viable option for gaining access to the internet. With 3G speeds, EV-DO offers descent speeds for sending and receiving diagnoses over the internet from the New York-based imaging facilities. Additionally, it is possible to decrypt the connection making it secure.

Recommendation

Cable connection will be the most viable option for NHS. It offers faster connections, and the services are already present from the TV companies. Additionally, cable connection will provide almost similar speeds across the locations, as opposed to cellular connections, which vary in strength. Although weather may be a problem, with DSL offering a better all-weather solution albeit slow, cable offers faster connections. With the inexpensive yet faster Docsis 3.0 and with some cable being faster fiber optic (Scroxton, 2014; Ward, 2014), cable therefore is indeed the best solution.

Technological Acceptance Curve

NHS is an early adopter of technology. Given that NHS has, within its goals, the provision of state-of-the-art health services, and its collaboration with the New York based health facilities to provide medical imaging services with rapid turnaround of results and diagnoses, the health services company (NHS) is an early adopter. Additionally, the collaboration with the New York based facilities with the latest in imaging technology points to the fact that NHS is indeed an early adopter. Thus, even with the inability to purchase the imaging equipment (cost being a factor since NHS is still a small medical services provider (Jones, 2003), its collaboration with the New York based facilities with enough capital to invest on the new technology, as well as its use of the internet through encrypted connections, points to its early technology adoption. The recommendation on cable connection will therefore be wholly accepted given that the management is forward looking and early adopters of new technology. Additionally, although other option such as BPL offer faster speeds, the technology is not yet widely available in the market, and can therefore not be used. If the management considers EV-DO and 4G LTE, these connections are subject to solar flares, and are usually not available or stable especially in remote areas as the NHS facilities. They may therefore not be among the most viable options for NHS. DSL on the other hand provides very slow connections, which, although not highly affected by weather, may not offer the fast turnaround of results as desired by the management.

References

Anderson, S. (2010). High-Speed Internet Access.Rough Notes, 143(4):22-24

Anwar, R. & Ahmed, I. (2012). A Unified Comparison of CDMA EVDO Key Performance Parameters in Multi-Vendor Environment. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 3(4): 209-225

Cable Television Laboratories (2009). Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification, DOCSIS 3.0. : Physical Layer Specification. Cable Television Inc. retrieved from http://www.cablelabs.com/wp-content/uploads/specdocs/CM-SP-PHYv3.0-I08-090121.pdf

FCC. Types of Broadband Connections. FCC. Retrieved from http://www.broadband.gov/broadband_types.html#satellite

Hulleat, R. S. (2002). FCC orders phone companies to share high-speed Internet access. Information Intelligence Online Newsletter, 21(1):7-9

Jones, D. C. (ed). (2003). New Economy Handbook. New York: Academic Press

Jones, E. (2006). Introduction to DSL. Taylor & Francis Group.

Los Angeles Times (2000). Excite Says it will Weigh Access Links other than Cable; Internet: Company Considers Offering High-speed Service on Phone Lines, Acknowledging Potential Customer Losses in 2002. Los Angeles Times

Network Business Weekly. (2014). AT&T; AT&T Enhances Local Wireless Network For Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta. Network Business Weekly

Scroxton, A. (2014). Cable broadband now faster than fiber, claims Ofcon. Computer Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240232043/Cable-broadband-now-faster-than-fibre-claims-Ofcom

Shawn, Y. & Dionne, S. (2006). Options Expand For High-Speed Internet; With Swifter Downloads, DSL Now Vies With Cable; $200 a Month at the High End. Wall Street Journal

Singh, S. M. (2012). Broadband Over Power Lines: A White Paper. Newark, New Jersey: Ratepayer Advocate. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/rpa/BPLwhitepaper.pdf

Ward, M. (2014). UK Cable broadband internet speeds ‘faster than fiber.’ BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29475570

Whitney, L. (2014). Karma’s 4G LTE hotspot lets you pay as you go. CNET. Retrieved from http://www.cnet.com/news/karmas-new-4g-lte-hotspot-lets-you-pay-as-you-go/

Zhou, Z., Claypool, M. &Kinicki, R. (2012).Characterization of a 3G EV-Do Network-a Measurement Study. Worcester, MA: Worcester Polytechnic Institute