Sample Anthropology Paper on Child Psychology Research Paper


Child development encompasses the emotional, biological and psychological changes
that happen to an individual from birth to the end of adolescence. As such, Kids grow up, in
particular, cultural, social, physical, historical and economic circumstances that influence their
lives in positive or negative ways (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2002). Equally, it is evident that the
socio-cultural setting of children can have great effects on their growth. Consequently, Nature
refers to every evolutionary factor that have influenced and shaped the genetics that individuals
inherit from their ancestors and parents. For instance, the color of my eyes and hair are similar to
those of my mother, I have great verbal skills like my father and I am of the same height as my
mother. On the other hand, Nurture denotes everything that influences people since they began to
grow or various environmental factors that affect individuals since they were conceived. As
such, there are various positive environmental factors that helped me enhance my genetic
potential for logical thinking, fast processing of information, and excellent memory. Finally, a
child’s psychology development depends on both nature and nurture factors like teachers,
parents, inherited genes, siblings, peers/friends, culture and society (Montgomery, 2011).
How Nature and Nurture Contributed to My Development

All aspects of my behavior development have always been affected by both nurture and
nature, operating together. Similarly, I usually study all my behavior in relation to both nurture
and nature because they always interact as well as work together. In reality, nature determines
and influences a wide range of my potentials as a human being. Equally, nurture has influenced
the way that I have actualized my potential through being hindered or helped by bad or good
environmental inputs. Additionally, I am a biological organism, and my genes are continuously
decoding data for the various chemicals that constitute my brain and body (Montgomery, 2011).

For instance, I have got family genetics that offer me a big advantage in enhancing my verbal
intelligence. However, I am also affected by various environmental inputs in the name of nurture
to the extent that they hurt or help me in ways that my genes cannot control or predict. Hence, as
a child my parents gave me a good diet, and they allowed me to exercise a lot in order to develop
a healthy brain (Montgomery, 2011). Equally, I am raised in a family that encourages me to
continue with my verbal skills because my parents are good in communicating. Furthermore, my
parents raised me in an exciting environment so as to stimulate my mind. For example, they
always placed me in cribs with numerous stimulating toys and they spend hours interacting and
playing with me. As a result, the mental stimulation activated my brain cells as my logical skill
developed, and I became intelligent (Junn & Boyatzis, 2013).

How Cognition has changed across My Lifespan

Cognition refers to the process through which people learn about the globe as well as the
objects found in it (Piaget, 1972). For this reason, individuals tend to comprehend the connection
between these objects and the world. At the age of two to four years, I was very active and
involved myself in various creative activities including drawing and comprehending models,
simple maps, and photographs. Additionally, I was able to tell the distinction between non-living
and living objects. At the age of four to seven, I recognized the repercussions of transformations
in situations that were familiar. Four years later, I was able to read mental states of people and
their beliefs. Equally, I managed to suppress response that I perceived inappropriate. Similarly, I
was able to think in a logical and more organized way whenever I came across any tangible
information. I also managed to navigate environments that were familiar, provide clear directions
and comprehend the connection between objects. However, as an adolescent, I can think
abstractly in distinct situations.

In light of the above, my cognition has been influenced by distinct factors and
circumstances. Some of them have occurred spontaneously and frequently as a result of my
interaction with peers, conversation with my parents, siblings and other children while playing
out in the field. As a consequence of these interactions, I have gained a wide range of skills such
as language skills, problem-solving skills, logical and scientific reasoning, and academic
achievement. Cognitive theorists such as Piaget (1972), contend that children are conceived with
innate potential for rational thinking. These potential is enhanced by children interacting with
their environment. For instance, as a child and an adult, I assimilate information via the senses
and process it. As my cognitive abilities advanced, my spiritual, moral and language abilities
equally advanced. During my childhood years, I could not fluently speak English, but as an adult
I have good communication skills that have developed through the years. Besides, as I interacted
with other young children, I became increasingly aware that people hold distinct views regarding
religion and other issues in the society (Vygotsky, 1962).

How My Educational Environment Helped and Hindered My Learning Pre-K

through High School

At Pre-K, I found learning with other young kids extremely complex as it was embedded
in relationships. However, the learning relationship provided me with level ground to construct
meaning about the world, others, and about self. Teachers often utilize their content knowledge
and child development knowledge to evaluate, implement and design experiences that enhance
learning and optimal development for all school going children (Vygotsky, 1962). Their
utilization of observations by thoroughly comprehending children communities, cultures and
families helps in the learning process. For instance, at Pre-K, my tutor enhanced my critical
thinking, problem-solving skills, social and academic competence within a challenging and

supportive environment. Despite the challenging learning experiences, I learned to be a
competent and confident learner.
In fact, a supportive, safe and healthy environment both at Pre-K and high school helped
me learn in a very powerful way. For instance, through this environment, I was encouraged to be
more inquisitive, innovative, and a risk taker. Besides, such learning environment encourages
leadership competencies because dedicated, excellent and competent tutors want to offer their
services in such conditions (Montgomery, 2011). However, some school environments hinder an
individual learning ability. For instance, schools located in places where gang members dominate
and frighten both teachers and students. For instance, some teachers might not be willing to
discipline kids for fear of being attacked, or their cars destroyed. Equally, students do not freely
participate in sports with other neighborhood schools because they need security guards to escort
them to the sports event. Such a place hinders an individual learning capacity. To make a school
a safe place to enhance learning requires a constant and thoughtful attention to safety and
security of facilities. As such, schools need to have clear procedures and policies for staff and
student’s conduct, as well as effective and frequent communication with the school community,
and families (Montgomery, 2011).
My learning was also hindered by students whose primary objective was to inflict
physical and psychological harm through bullying, harassment and intimidation. However, the
school administration did everything to ensure that this habit was not practiced by students. For
instance, the school administration enhanced safety on playgrounds, bus stops, in classrooms,
hallways and lunch rooms. Social exclusion, hateful language and teasing not only hindered my
learning, but also my psychological well-being and physical adjustment.

How My Language Development Intertwined With My Cognitive and Social


My language development greatly depended on my social development. Theorists such as
Piaget (1932) and Vygotsky (1962) perceive language development as complex relations
between the environment and the child. The interaction is often influenced by cognitive and
social development. My language development was enhanced by my constant communication
with those who were around me including parents, peers and teachers. My mother was influential
in my language development. She thought me how to spell various words and to construct
sentences using those words. Equally, my siblings influenced my language development in a
positive way as I could imitate how they spoke, and repeat what they said.

The roles of Parents, Siblings, Peers/Friends, and Society in My Development

My parents influenced me in a positive manner because they were accepting, demanding,
responsive and they emphasized in interacting and discussing issues with me. As a result, they
influenced my development directly based on the genes that I inherited from them. The genes I
got from my parents made me develop hair color, eye color, body shape, temperament, and
complexion that are similar to those of my parents. Additionally, my identity and personality
traits are significantly influenced by genes and environmental factors including my parents.
Moreover, there are three primary types of attachment children have with their parents:
ambivalent, avoidant, and secure (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2002). Therefore, as a child I
exhibited secure attachment to my parents because I used to be upset when my parents left but
when they returned I would be happy. As such, a child with secure connection with his/her
parents is more empathetic, resilient, curious, and has got a greater self-esteem (Papalia, Olds &

Feldman, 2002). Furthermore, the interactions between my parents and I have influenced the
temperament that I have. Equally, my parents influence on the development of my personality
helped me to enhance my behavioral and emotional self-regulation. Consequently, I have high
standards of moral reasoning because my parents influenced my moral development in a positive
way. My parents taught me to behave and act in an ethical manner as well as being able to
distinguish between bad and good acts. Hence, when my parents noticed any negative behavior
they always intervened by correcting the behavior or disciplining me with the intention of
helping me to internalize moral principles. Finally, most parents influence their children’s
motives, personality, values attitudes as well as how they interact with their peers (Junn &
Boyatzis, 2013).
My elder sibling engaged in helping, caregiving, teaching, and leadership roles while at
home. As the second born, I grew up imitating or learning from the actions of my elder sibling.
Equally, I found myself speaking the same way my elder sibling spoke and I could act like him
when playing. As a result, my elder sibling influenced my language, actions, and the way I
reacted to issues at home. Similarly, when my parents were not at home, my elder sibling would
take care of me. Consequently, I became more socially, linguistically, and cognitively competent
during my early years. Furthermore, I started to take an active role in the interactions between
my siblings as I was the one who always initiated more games. Through interacting with my
brother I was able to learn how to manage disagreements, how to interact with other kids, and I
was able to manage both negative and positive emotions (Montgomery, 2011).

The relationship with my peers gave me a great opportunity for enhancing my
interpersonal skills, gaining support, and learning cooperation. During my adolescent years, I
was comfortable to share my issues with my peers because they were significant sounding boards
to me. Equally, I could resolve my internal conflicts once I discussed my problems with my
peers without arousing guilt or anxiety. Additionally, my friends respected my competencies,
hence allowing me to cultivate an identity based on my skills, especially social and athletic ones.
Furthermore, the peers that I have in social institutions offer me with personal and practical
guidance regarding behavior and relationships in general. Similarly, my peers have shaped my
attributes and behavior in a positive way because they are always critical and honest when
evaluating me. I was able to develop my compromise and cooperation skills while I interacted
with my peers (Junn & Boyatzis, 2013). Likewise, I have experienced issues to do with
perspective-taking, competition, altruism, and empathy while socializing with my peers.
I have many friends that have assisted me to develop an understanding about self-esteem
and self-definition. Moreover, getting along with my friends has enabled me to develop my
social skills and enhance my rational conscience. Currently, my scale of values has developed,
and I can distinguish between positive and negative social attitudes. Finally, my peers have made
to appreciate my self-worth and self-esteem; hence I can now explore and develop my strengths.
Nonetheless, I have met some peers who have influenced me in a negative manner through peer
pressure. For instance, some peers would pressure me to engage in vices like drinking alcohol,
vandalism, drug use and other risky behaviors. Nonetheless, I was able to avoid and deal with
such pressures, and I am currently focused on my strengths so as to achieve my academic goals
(Junn & Boyatzis, 2013).



I grew up in a society where people were being differentiated in terms of biological,
gender and race differences. As such, the gender ideology created a culture of stereotyped roles
of women and men in society. Hence, I grew up knowing that accessing resources, level of
societal participation, hierarchy and social position were determined by an individual’s gender.
Equally, social institutes like the family, caste systems or religious systems; legal and political
structures; educational and economic institutions as well as the mass media influence people’s
growth in various ways (Montgomery, 2011). The institutions mentioned above gave me
different meanings and understandings about gender, love, politics, and religion. As a result, I
can use the various aspects of society to improve on my strengths and focus on my studies
knowing that I understand who I am. Furthermore, peers, parents, the society and my siblings
influenced my development in a great way. As such, all aspects of my behavior development
have always been affected by both nurture and nature, operating together.



Junn, E., & Boyatzis, C. (2013). Child Growth and Development 13/14. Dushkin Pub Group.
Montgomery, H. (2011). An Introduction to Childhood: Anthropological Perspectives on
Children's Lives. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2002). A Child’s World: Infancy through
Adolescence (9 th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Piaget, J. (1932). The Moral Judgment of the Child. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.