Meagher, R. E., & Pryer, D. A. (2018). War and moral injury: A reader. Boston: Cascade Books.
The article indicates that soldiers and police officers suffers from traumatic events
resulting to emotion wounds. The family also suffers financial setback while trying to
help the affected person. The author argues that lack of awareness has resulted to
untreated PTSD on police officers.
The article is relevant since it is published by Cascade Books. The article is significant
since it is peer-reviewed, which indicates it is legitimate. Meagher has 20 years’
experience in counselling patients with PTSD which indicates that the article is
I will use the source to evaluate how PTSD affects soldiers and police officers after being
exposed to a traumatic events. Moreover, it is helpful for my study since it explains the
best option of treating PTSD.
Hautzinger, S. J., & Scandlyn, J. (2016). Beyond post-traumatic stress: Homefront struggles with
the wars on terror. London: Routledge Publishers.
The article talks about the struggle faced by military and police officers in the line of duty
which results to PTSD. Authors argue that PTSD is a way of mind dealing with traumatic
events. The article indicates that everyone is vulnerable to PTSD when exposed to
traumatic events. As a result, article indicates that PTSD symptoms are feedbacks,
memories and regrets.
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 3
The article is relevant since it is published by Routledge Publishers, which is authentic.
The book is also peer-reviewed which indicates the legitimacy of the source.
The article is vital to my study since it helps me to evaluate the cause, effects and
treatment of PTSD. Furthermore, the article is useful since it helps me to understand the
importance of counselling soldiers and police officers on PTSD. As a consequence, I will
use the article to identify ways of dealing with the PTSD among veterans of war, and
Kirschman, E. (2018). I love a cop: What police families need to know. New York, NY: The
The source explains that police officer’s families are resilient and brave since they face
challenges based on traumatic events, which affects the cops. The author analyzes the
harsh realities of PTSD as related to police officers. Respectively, Kirschman analysis
practical ways to prevent and treat the illness.
The article is credible since it is published by Guildford Press, which indicates that the
book is genuine. The source is reliable since Dr. Kirschman is a psychologist who has
worked with police officers for 30 years. The author having experience on-field which
indicates that the source is legitimate.
The article is helpful since it gives me some tips on how a family needs to handle a
patient with PTSD. Moreover, the article will provide a guideline on how to prevent
PTSD before it leads to depression. Therefore, I will use the source to have a genuine and
unbiased information on PTSD on police officers and how awareness is crucial for the
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 4
Morris, D. J. (2015). The evil hours: A biography of post-traumatic stress disorder. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
The article elaborates on how a marine correspondent had PTSD. The author indicates
that many people who have survived PTSD are cautious of similar traumatic event.
Nevertheless, as a marine, the author learned that a person living with PTSD is usually
haunted by nightmares, flashbacks, regrets, and low self-esteem.
The article is relevant since the author was a marine veteran who gives unbiased
information on PTSD. The source has been rated 4.7, a clear indication that the audience
are relatively satisfied with the article’s guidance. The article is also peer-reviewed,
I will use the article to gain knowledge and establish the right measures to take in
preventing and treating PTSD. Furthermore, the article enlightens me on how to follow
the right path when dealing with patients with PTSD since they require a lot of
understanding and awareness on the effects of the illness.
Benedek, D. M., & In Wynn, G. H. (2016). Complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD.
Oxford; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
The article elaborate on traumatic events and their long term effects on the soldiers,
police officers as well as civilian. The author indicates that there has been an increase in
the number of people diagnosed with PTSD and the need to invest more in other
medications. Moreover, the article suggests that awareness of PTSD is vital since it can
help police officers and soldiers overcome the haunting memories of traumatic events.
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 5
The article is credible since it is published by Oxford University Press, which indicates it
is legitimate and have unbiased information on PTSD. The positive reviews elaborate on
the relevance of the article since the authors have long-time experience in the field of
medicine. Moreover, the article is peer-reviewed to confirm that it has genuine
The article is vital to my study since I have learned the importance of prevention and the
alternative measures of controlling flashbacks of the traumatic events. I will use the
article to elaborate on the significance of a person to be diagnosed as soon as they poses
symptoms of PTSD.
Koven, S. (2018). Veteran Treatments: PTSD Interventions. In Healthcare (Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 94).
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.
The article indicates that some veterans are not able to fully adapt to a healthy life after
experiencing a traumatic event as well as police officers. The families of the affected
individuals dig deep in their pockets to make sure they recover. Nevertheless, there is a
need to pay more attention to the effectiveness of the various intervention. Moreover, the
article elaborate that increasing awareness can help police officers who are exposed to
The article is credible since it is published by the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing
Institute. Furthermore, the author has long experience in the study and teaching of PTSD
in the University of Louisville, which elaborates on the authenticity of the source.
The article is useful to my study since I will be able to evaluate the option to create
awareness for police officers who have undiagnosed and have untreated post-traumatic
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 6
stress disorder. Therefore, enabling me to identify the best way to care for individuals
with symptoms of PTSD.
Miao, X. R., Chen, Q. B., Wei, K., Tao, K. M., & Lu, Z. J. (2018). Posttraumatic stress disorder:
from diagnosis to prevention. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 32.
The article explains the challenges of veterans of war, and other first respondents face
due to exposure to traumatic events. Post-traumatic stress disorder can result in financial
and social problems where early diagnosis and awareness are crucial. The article
indicates that the prevention and treatment methods of PTSD vary from pharmacological
medications to psychological interventions.
The article’s work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China,
which illustrates the credibility of the information. Furthermore, all authors are
professionals in their area of medical research, which resulted in unbiased and detailed
information on post-traumatic stress disorder.
The article is significant in my study since it will help me understand the history of PTSD
and identify possible solutions outlined to avoid excessive financial and social burden on
families of affected soldiers and police officers.
Racine, E., & Affleck, W. (2016). Changing Memories: Between Ethics and Speculation. AMA
Journal of Ethics, 18(12), 1241-1248.
The article indicates that there is a need to have ethics when approaching the issue of
PTSD among law enforcement and other people. The effect of stigma and lack of
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 7
awareness have become an enemy of progress in dealing with people who were exposed
to traumatic events.
The source is relevant since William Affleck has a PHD in social psychiatry at Mc Gill
University in Montreal. Moreover, Erick Racine has a PHD as a psychologist from the
University of British. The authors have knowledge of the post-traumatic disorder, which
makes the article authentic.
The article is vital to my study since I will be able to put ethical considerations when
dealing with the matter of PTSD. The article is also useful since it analysis the
importance of awareness on PTSD, which can assist untreated police officers in
Violanti, J. M., Charles, L. E., McCanlies, E., Hartley, T. A., Baughman, P., Andrew, M. E., &
Burchfiel, C. M. (2017). Police stressors and health: A state-of-the-art review. Policing: An
International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 40(4), 642-656.
The journal indicates that police officers are vulnerable to PTSD since they face
traumatic events in their work. The increased risks, such as dealing with criminals, may
lead to depression, flashbacks, and regrets. As a result, the article emphasis on police
stressors and how to deal with the pressure.
The journal is credible since it is peer-reviewed, which indicates that it is authentic. The
authors have experience in the psychology field. For instance, Violanti is a psychologist
working at The State University of New York. All this Factor indicates that the source is
UNTREATED PTSD ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 8
The journal is helpful to my research since it will help me evaluate the possible solution
for Police officers who have untreated PTSD due to lack of awareness. Furthermore, it
will be able to identify several ways to deal with traumatic events.
Archibald, P. C., & Akers, T. A. (2018). Development of the Behavioral-Biomedical Law
Enforcement Stress Discordance Model (B2LESD): An epidemiological criminology framework
(LEPH2018). Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 3(3), 68-83.
The journal elaborates there that the misconduct in the law enforcement profession is
brought by stress. Many police officers face traumatic events in the line of duty, which
affects the performances of their work. As a consequence, the journal focus on
identifying behaviors related to individuals who are exposed to stressful situations.
The journal is relevance since Archibald and Akers have worked at Morgan State
University. Archibald is dealing with the program research for health while Akers is
dealing with a public health program. The journal is peer-reviewed, which shows
The journal is significant in my study since it will enable me to evaluate the misconduct
and suggest a solution when dealing with a patient with PTSD. Additionally, it will help
me in identifying the ways to create awareness of PTSD.