Sample Article Review on Effects of Radiation Exposure on Health

Long-term Effects of Radiation Exposure on Health

This article comprehensively explains the effects that emerge due to frequent exposure to radiation. The authors try to evaluate the various health hazards that come up due to continued exposure to radiation through case studies of atomic bomb survivors, individuals working and living in radiation infested environments. The authors strive towards substantiating the consequential risks that humans are exposed to as an outcome of radiation exposure. They analyzed results and findings that outlined how individual’s radiation doses prove that by exposing oneself to ionized radiation one is at risk of acquiring a disease such as a lifetime cancer witnessed in the case of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The then victims attested relayed a dose response relation that is linear for sturdy cancer. The young survivors exposed are more at risk than those of old ages with the effects causing spread of other diseases on the rise.

For expectant mothers, the fetus’ central nervous system performance was affected for the period of its development and the mothers’ possibility of acquiring cancer increased. They further identified that the rise of hereditary malformations relating to maternal and paternal doses did not incur notable increase due to the deafening state of the immune systems of aged individuals and existence of minor inflammatory reactions among the survivors. The authors provided references from scholarly articles that instigated the Chemobyl disaster that provided evidence of increased occurrence of thyroid cancer, which was reportedly significant among children who had received high thyroid doses due to internal exposure of radioactive iodine. This caused severe psychological effects with children the most affected. This article found out that rate of cancer increases when one is exposed to a high radiation dose although it is not specified if an increase or decrease of acute doses has role in the spread of cancer.

Through this article, the authors stated the diverse ways through which radiations find their way into the human body and later on resulting to acquisition of cancer and other malady. The cells are induced through a sect leading to the failure of body protection organs and tissues. To handle this, a protective dose should be entwined to enable researchers observe and identify the rate of damage those radiations may have caused. By increasing the utilization of the dose scholars in this field are able to effectively provide accurate and more reliable results. Frequent exposure to ionizing radiation causes the damage of genetic materials resulting to cancer that comes about due to the radiations that were induced a long time ago. These infections can in some instances affect future generations that are from your lineage in more severe forms. In the initial stages of radiation based health risks there are symptoms like haemorrhagic diarrhea which is caused by tissue reactions of the gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia as a result of bone marrow failure, erythema and epilation caused by disturbance of the skin as well as cataracts, necrosis and cardiovascular disorders (Bouville, Linet, Hatch, Mabuchi & Simon, 2014).

The measurement of radiation as explained by scientists is through the use of radiation dose accumulated that signifies the energy that comes about as a result of deposition of radiation. As a result, the amount of damage apprehended relies on the solidity of ionization. The classification of radiation exposure relayed through atomic bombs into initial and residual radiation enables distinctive assessment. While initial radiation is caused when we encounter direct explosions through rising fireballs that are short-lived, residual radiation is caused by falling of radioactive materials from the environment. In addition to its ability to cause mutations in exposed cells, it has recently been recognized that ionizing radiation can cause genomic instability. Similar studies conducted state that the exposure of radiation in pregnant women affects the hormone that is responsible for production. Individuals with rigorous cases are discovered in a minimum of 3 years with excesses going for as late as 6 to 8 years after contact.

Individuals who have experienced utero to atomic bomb radiation have exhibited a high rate of disease acquisition ever since first detection between 1940 and 1950. Studies have proved that by grouping the victims analogous when carrying out an analysis with consideration on they were exposed, the outcomes are comparable with more cases in children and the aged. It is evident that Leukemia was realized within 3 years after the bombings with increased risks being established after exposure. However, researchers have observed that the spread of leukemia decreased as individuals aged. With cancer, the severe cases are realized after 10 years b on accounts that bombings are still being emancipated. The perils of cancer acquired through experience to radiation vary since tissues diverse. Cancer impinges on varied body organs in humans such as the bladder, breast and other vulnerable body organs, which are attached by tissues. It is conversely pragmatic that depending on the sexual characteristics, cancer was severe in men than women. Depending on the period of induction, risks of childhood cancers were more compared to those acquired for the in the course of adulthood. For example, cancer of the lung, skin and brain was witnessed largely in children than in adults while stomach, liver and prostate cancer was identified to affect adults more (Carpenter & Bushkin-Bedient, 2013).

There was an increase in the spread of respiratory diseases after the use of dose response relation with individuals exhibiting inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Amplified incidences produce increased infections on the fetus than before exposure. This affected individuals when growing up where body parts lacked proper coordination as well as low stature. Though relationship of the exposure and carcinogenesis is yet to be factored, there were traces of molecular designs evident in cancers that came about as a result of high dosage of radiation.

The authors’ findings try to show that studies and research methods have been devised to educate individuals on the negative influences radiation exposure. Researchers in the medical and environment fields have invented mechanisms that if well implemented the issue of radiation exposure based risks can be tackled effectively. Through experimental data they have been able propose new mechanism that removes the cells that appear as a result of radiation exposure to children while they are still in the uterus. It is critical to note that inference of doses interrelated to radiation can only be dealt with using a series of approaches such as radiobiology and radio epidemiology. Through the use of new technologies, molecular epidemiology can easily be carried out through analyzing genomic variations in individuals and how they respond to radiation carcinogenesis. These compositions have particularly targeted the effective correlation of biomarkers (Jacob & Stram 2013).

Through studies conducted on the effects of radiation on natural science, the researchers have assumed the aspect of psychosocial considerations. For example through the Chernobyl plant incident we are presented with information of how individuals are seriously affected by stating the various experiences such as trauma. The atomic bombings also pose serious health problems to individuals considering the social set ups within which they originate. Releasing additional radioactive particle into the environment in wastes causes environmental exposure to disease and other misfortunes (Bouville, Linet, Hatch, Mabuchi & Simon, 2014).  The processes of radioactivity cannot be easily retrieved exposing millions or billions of people over generations placing the human health at a very dangerous position. Despite doubts that may arise about the various health effects, it is evident that the risks are comparatively hefty, particularly when many generations are to be exposed repeatedly.

These effects are considerably sufficient to necessitate thorough review preceding resolutions. It is with great disquiet that miscellaneous institutions and nations are more at risk of encountering increased radioactive activities. This is due to sub-clinical depression and anxiety that present its populace to the radiation exposure menace and the mental health deformations it carries along. Even though genetic aspects are critical in controlling individuals’ receptiveness to cancer, their effects on the spread of cancer are very minimal. The efforts to reduce the rate of radiation exposure should concentrate on ways to lessen contact during development, there is a high possibility that exposure during development will lead to rise of diseases.

Appendix 1: Cost of the Study estimate

Budget Item Activity Amount (USD)
Planning   1000
Survey for the Target areas   1,500
 Finding sources of the data and information: Sampling of the Target population   1000
Materials and equipment Accessing and testing the radiation effect on casualties of atomic bombs 3500
  Testing for radiation-related cancer and the variations between organs and tissues. 4000
  Testing the radiation exposure effects for non-cancer diseases. 3000
  Testing for the effects of parental radiation dose and its relation to hereditary outcomes of the exposure. 3000
Legal costs for agreements with target sample   1000
Partnerships with other research groups in conducting the study   1000
Documentation of the research   1000
TOTAL   20,000


Bouville, A., Linet, M. S., Hatch, M., Mabuchi, K., & Simon, S. L. (2014). Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(1), 1-5. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307120

Carpenter, D. & Bushkin-Bedient (2013) .Exposure to Chemicals and Radiation During Childhood and Risk for Cancer Later in Life. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, S21-S29.

Chatterjee, S., & Miller, A. (2010). Biomedical instrumentation systems. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Jacob, P., & Stram, D. O. (2013). Late health effects of radiation exposure: New statistical, epidemiological, and biological approaches. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 89(8), 673-683. doi:10.3109/09553002.2013.767996