Sample Biology Paper on Causes of War & Peace

Answer the Question. (Causes of War & Peace)

Q1. Explain the baltimore classification of viruses and the type of nucleic acid found in visions of each type. Give one example of each of the group

Viruses are fast becoming the cause of serious illnesses that are non-treatable. However, not every individual is aware of the various classifications of viruses. David Baltimore came up with an approach that aimed at grouping viruses into seven classes. Baltimore classification was done on the basis of the type of genome and the way the genome is transcribed and replicated. The classes of the viruses according to Baltimore include:

  1. Double-stranded DNA viruses- Has deoxyribonucleic acid example is Herpesvirus
  2. Single-stranded DNA viruses- Has deoxyribonucleic acid example is Parvovirus
  • Double-stranded RNA viruses- Has ribonucleic acid example is Reovirus
  1. Single-stranded RNA viruses (positive sense)- Has ribonucleic acid example is Togavirus
  2. Single-stranded RNA viruses (Negative sense)- Has ribonucleic acid example is Rhabdovirus
  3. Positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses, that, through a DNA intermediate, always undergo replication- has ribonucleic acid example is retrovirus
  • Double-stranded DNA viruses, that, through a single-stranded RNA intermediate, undergo replication- has deoxyribonucleic acid example is hepadnavirus (Flint 920)

Q2. Compare and contrast the four types of nucleic acid polymerases and give an example of each?

The major types of nucleic acid polymerases include the DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, telomerase and the template-independent terminal nucleotidyl transferase. It would be worth noting that, all the four types of nucleic acid polymerases are similar as they use a general acid for the transfer of nucleotidyl from one point to another. Besides, it would be important for one to understand the fact that all nucleic acid polymerases are similar in terms of their roles as they help in the expression and regulation of genetic aspects in the human body and also take part in the replication and maintenance of genomes (Flint 929). Additionally, nucleic acid polymerases catalyze or rather speed up the formation of DNA and RNA which are important components in the human body for instance. There are a number of variations among the nucleic acid polymerases. To begin with, the DNA polymerase has a structure that is highly conserved and its major function is to contribute to the formation of DNA from nucleotides. An example of the DNA polymerase is the T7 DNA polymerase.  Unlike other nucleic acid polymerases, the RNA polymerase is different in terms of its functions as it causes transcription elongation which involves the accumulation or rather the addition of ribonucleotides. The process of elongation also involves the change to the transcriptional complex from the open complex. The RNA polymerase is also different from the other polymerases as it is found in a number of organisms such as bacteria, eukaryotes, archaea and viruses while the other polymerases are found in single organisms, especially the human body (Flint 238). The telomerase is another nucleic acid polymerase which uses TERC and TERT to add a six-nucleotide repeating sequence to the 3’ strand of chromosomes. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase plays the role of catalyzing the template-indepndent addition of deoxyribonucleotides to the 3’-OH terminus of the molecules of DNA (Flint 929).

Q3. What is the molecular mechanism of RNA replication in poliovirus?

To start with, it would be very important to understand what a poliovirus is. A poliovirus is an agent that causes the disease of poliomyelitis, which is commonly known as polio (Flint 589). The virus is composed of a protein capsid and an RNA genome (Flint 1002). In several occasions, the replication of stranded RNA viruses has still been unknown to many individuals. The molecular mechanism of RNA replication in poliovirus takes place when an RNP complex formed around the 5’ cloverleaf RNA structure comes into an interaction with the poly (A) that binds protein that is bound to the 3’ poly (A) tail, therefore, it forms a link with the ends of the viral RNA and circularizes it effectively (Flint 1002).

Q4. Briefly describe the three ways in which mRNAs are processed in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells?

Understanding what a eukaryote is would be very helpful in answering the question. A eukaryotic cell is a cell which contains nucleus and other several structures that are not left open but are enclosed with cellular membranes. The function of this is often to prevent the damage of the internal structures and membranes. There are three ways through which mRNAs are processed within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Firstly, the mRNAs are processed through the modification of the 5’-ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The process is called capping and it often occurs at the earliest stage during the synthesis of eukaryotes. The second way through which the eukaryotic cells are processed is through polyadenylation. This is a process which involves the modification of the 3’ –ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. It involves the addition of a good number of A nucleotides to the 3’ ends of mRNAs. The third way through which mRNAs are processed in eukaryotic cells is through splicing. Research shows that eukaryotic genes are always interrupted by several sequences that often are not seen in the final RNA. It is always advisable that the sequences that cause interruptions should be removed. The process through which the sequences are removed is known as splicing and it is one of the ways through which processing of mRNAs takes place in the eukaryotic cells (Flint 724).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Flint, S J. Principles of Virology. , 2009. Print.