Sample Biology Research Paper on Plains Buffalo

Plains Buffalo

A large number of buffalo once wandered North America, grazing the prairies and plains and populating the mountains. Historical reports around the time of Columbus’ landing portray the creatures’ significance to the indigenous individuals. As stated by explorers, “the fields were dark and showed up as though in movement” with plains buffalo herds. Woven into the fabric of American life for a considerable length of time, the plains buffalo was adored and respected.

There were approximately between 70 and 150 million buffalo in 1830. They wandered the Great Plains in numbers. Incredible early European explorers depicted them as “numbers-innumerable, and “the fields were dark and showed up as though in movement. Their relocation ways were trampled to the point that contemporary parkways are dependent upon their paths. Plains buffalo became almost wiped out by a mixture of hunting and butcher in the nineteenth century and the emergence of bovine ailments from domestic cattle, which has made a late resurgence generally confined to a couple of national reserves and parks (Lott, 2002).

The main cause of the buffalo’s eradication, and that, which embraced others, was the rise of civilization, with all its components of danger, upon the entire nation inhabited by that buffalo. Hunting of the plains buffalo was a key activity to the economy and social order of the Plains Indians who occupied the large prairies on the Interior Plains of North America, preceding the buffalo’s close extinction in the late 19th century (Zontek, 1995). The species’ sensational decrease was the effect of habitat misfortune because of the expansion of farming and ranching in North America, modern scale hunting practiced by the non-indigenous hunters, and expanded indigenous hunting because of non-indigenous demand for buffalo meat and hides. (Zontek, 1995).

Numerous records of the buffalo butcher contend that the extinction of the plains buffalo was a mystery objective of the government approach. A few authors labeled it as genocide. The proof provided for this speculation is the numerous fizzled and stalled bills presented in Congress, and different quotes from government authorities, which note the salutary impact on eradication, might have on domiciling the locals. An informal policy of the US Government had a significant effect on the size and dispersion of the plains buffalo. The armed force, stationed all around the boondocks, was quietly encouraged to give weapons to the buffalo hunters. This action was part of the strategy to deny the Plains Indians their key wellspring of food, making it simpler to control the Indian people and take them to reservations, far from regions desired by the railroad organizations and new pilgrims.

The Comanche hunted plains buffalo as the primary wellspring of food. They gathered and hunted in light of the fact that this is the most ideal approach to get food on the plains. Huge herds of plains buffalo are easier to hunt. This is a less demanding approach to getting food compared to farming in the fields. Comanche men generally hunted the plains buffalo by driving them off bluffs or stalking them. As they procured horses, the Comanche tribe started to seek after the buffalo for mutual hunts, forcing them to move their villages regularly as the buffalo moved (Hämäläinen, 2008).

In 1872, early preservation endeavors prompted the foundation of the world’s earliest national park known as Yellowstone. A small group of plains buffalo was protected, but the few that were left outside the park were executed on Federal land.  In 1894, the Lacey Act was marked into law, restricting the slaughtering of any wildlife in the US (Isenberg, 1992). The plains buffalo were spared from elimination and today it is approximated that there are more than 150000 buffalo. Violators of the law were to pay a one thousand dollar fine or face detainment. This was the first viable security ever offered by the national government to protect buffalo.


Hämäläinen, P. (2008). The Comanche Empire. Yale University Press.

Isenberg, A. (1992). “Toward a Policy of Destruction: Buffaloes, Law, and the Market, 1803–1883”. Great Plains Quarterly Vol. 12; 227–41.

Lott, D. (2002). American Bison: A Natural History. University of California Press.

Zontek, K. (1995). “Hunt, Capture, Raise, Increase: The People Who Saved the Bison”. Great Plains Quarterly 15: 133–49.