Leadership and Motivation
Leadership involves the ability to influence people to do what the other person wants. Leaders employ various skills to achieve this purpose. As a result, several studies have tried to find out the styles that leaders use. It is important to note that a leader may employ more than one strategy depending on the situation and the people he is leading.
Charismatic leadership style influences his subjects through the power of his personality. He is energetic and very zealous (Podmoroff, 2005). Obsession enters the followers. Usually, he is very positive and that gets into the followers (Konrad, 2006). The achievement of whatsoever vision has highly depended on his presence. Whenever he is unavailable, the idea will be compromised.
Laissez Faire style of leadership gives a lot of autonomy to the subjects. He is not directly involved; however, he knows what is going on. He trusts others to do their work competently, as he monitors performance from afar. The leadership style is effective whenever there are different teams working on different phases of the same project. Autonomy leads the people to achieve greater level of satisfaction. The style is necessary whenever the followers are skilled and self-directed (Podmoroff, 2005).
Servant leadership places the interest of the group before his. He constantly involves the others in the process of making decisions so that they feel part of the organization. Whenever there is success, he stays out of the limelight and lets the group take credit. His leadership style is highly accepted with many employees. However, the style is not good when there are strict timelines for activities.
Transformational Leadership style expects the team to change even when it is difficult. He always expects people to give their best. Besides, he acts as a role model to many individuals within the organization. The leadership style leads to high productivity and if the company is profit-oriented, the profits will rise. The leader communicates the vision clearly and he is highly visible.
The business Executive of choice is Steve Jobs. His achievements as the head of Apple Incorporated were phenomenal. He greatly improved personal computing within the company besides cofounding Apple with Steve Wozniack in 1976. In the year, 1985, after a failed boardroom coup, he got expelled from the management of the company. At that he started NEXT Inc which initiated the production of computer products. Later when Apple bought the company he founded, he got back to the company as an advisor and later as an acting CEO. Later he was reinstated to the management of the firm. In 1997, he turned the corporation from near bankruptcy to profitability (Müller, 2010).
Apple Company was named as the most profitable organization in the world. In addition to this, the market place value of its securities increased considerably from $ 5 billion in 200 to $350 billion in 2010 (Müller, 2010). During the period of his leadership at Apple Company, he transformed several industries ranging from personal computing, movies, music, phones, retail stores and digital publishing. The success of the organization under his watch was great and questions abound on the leadership styles that he embraced.
Steve Jobs adopted transformational leadership style that saw him realized various achievements. He ensured that all workers mastered the vision he had for the organization. His vision was to revolutionize the industries in which he ventured, and he surely did. When he assumed the leadership of Apple, there was so many product lines that it was difficult to know in what area the company specialized. He reduced that to four products in which they finally made a mark. He adopted clear and constant communication with to the shareholders, customers and staff (Müller, 2010).
In this, the leader seeks the input of every person but still makes the final decision. Often while on a retreat with the executives, he would ask them ten things that they as accompany should do. After making contributions, he would reduce them to three and that became their vision for the following year.
Organizational Structure and Culture
Basically, the structure of the association refers to the arrangements that are assumed in the course of its operations. It entails how tasks are divided among individuals and groups, grouped and coordinated. On the other hand, specialization refers to the degree to which activities get separated into different jobs. Large and developed organizations in most cases have more specialized jobs than small ones. Moreover, departmentalization refers to how the related jobs get grouped together which allows for easy control and accountability. The chain of command adopted is another aspect of structure. This entails various lines of authority within the organization normally from top to bottom. It elucidates who reports to whom and in what capacity. Chain of command has to be clear to avoid ambiguity and insubordination. Individuals who carry out related work have to be slotted under one command to ensure unity of command and conformity. Another key aspect is span of control; the span of control within the organization refers to the number of levels within the organization. They may range from 4-6 in most cases.
Some firms practice decentralization while others centralization. In centralized form of organizations, top leaders in most cases make decision with little or no input from the lower levels, there is any involvement of the lowly rated employees. On the other hand, decentralized organizations get input from the lower level staff before making decisions resulting into inclusive decisions. The participation is vital for the employees’ sense of belonging within the entity.
Normally, organizations adopt various structures depending on a number of factors integrated. These factors are the business strategy, size of the company, level of technology and the environment in which it operates among vital others. Culture can be explained to be the unique characteristic of an organization that identifies it from the rest. These are the shared values and norms that govern the behavior of the employees. Any abnormal action gets punished, and good is rewarded. Individuals must get inducted on the culture. These may be through rituals, language among others.
Ethical Conduct and Effective Communication
Ethics refer to the morally acceptable standards of behavior for an organization. These socio-cultural norms make an organization acceptable the society in which it operates. Ethics demand that a company offers quality products to its customers at competitive prices. The company has continued to initiate high quality products such as the iphones that have taken over the market place. Ethics further demand that an organization achieves and maintains profitability for the sake of the shareholders who are the owners of the business.
He had the status of being strict on the employees. His comments were often frank and to the point. Nevertheless, because they had a sense of satisfaction working for the company and had good remunerations, many of them remained with the company.
Normally, a leader always has to communicate his vision clearly. That will remove ambiguity and duplication of roles. The retreats served as the opportunity for Steve Jobs to share the vision with the executives and get feedback from them. Involving employees in decision making is part of increasing their level of motivation as they feel appreciated. They then feel part of the organization and will work to achieve the goals they have participated in setting.
According to Maslow’s’ hierarchy of needs, there are five levels of wants. The need at the lower level has to get fulfilled first before the subsequent one. The first stage entails physical needs that are essential for survival of individual, also called basic needs. They entail food, clothing and shelter. Secondly, are security needs such as homage and job security. This is closely followed by social need for acceptance. The need get fulfilled when the person is in a family or a fulfilling relationship. Self esteem relates with the desire for acknowledgement and appreciation for any achievement. When these get fulfilled, there is the want for self-actualization. That is about one discovering himself. Whenever an organization identifies these needs in the employees and helps to fulfill them, their level of motivation will be high.
Effective communication with the employees increases their level of motivation. Whenever, they carry out their duty according to the expected standards, it is important to appreciate them openly before fellow employees. It results into a feeling of appreciation among the employees. Additionally, all the channels for communication should be open so that in case of any problem, a worker can express himself. The job description should also be precise to avoid any kind of ambiguity.
Appreciating good performance is another vital technique of motivating the employees. Whenever the level of profits increase, it is good to give them a pay bonus. Paying them for any extra time they put into the business will make them want to do more for the organization. Promotions for exemplary workers and open gratitude will make the others want to do better. The organization can also offer training to further develop the skills of its employees (Doyle, 2005).
An inclusive process for decision making helps to make the employees feel part of the company. The level of job satisfaction increases as they feel they are achieving the goals that they participated to set. Ideas from members of the organization can be helpful to the company. It further helps to encourage motivation among employees.
As the business gets more global, it is common to find that its workers are from diverse cultures and background. They may be from different ethnicities, religion, age, and sex and education level. Managing the diversity may present a challenge to the management. A common problem is poor communication given that people pass messages differently in different cultures. Conflicting messages may result into poor working relationship among various levels of management hence compromising productivity (Shakhray, 2009).
There is also the problem of resistance to change by some employees. They may feel no need to adopt a different strategy to accommodate persons of diverse backgrounds. The negative attitude will damage the company morale within the organization hence compromising performance levels (Konrad, 2006).
The firm has to be proactive in managing the aspect of diversity. It should organize seminars and workshops to encourage the employees to know each other. Difficult employees who are unwilling to change after several warnings should get dismissed (Konrad, 2006). Launching employee satisfaction survey will help to show how the employees are doing within the organization.
Diversity within the work place is good when managed well as it allows for sharing of important ideas. Persons from diverse backgrounds and cultures give a large pool of ideas and experience to the company. Additionally, they expand the scope of the company so that it can reach its worldwide market. Owing to this, the company will be achieving maximum profitability.
Doyle, S. (2005). The manager’s pocket guide to motivating employees. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.
Konrad, A. M. (2006). Handbook of workplace diversity. London [u.a.: Sage Publ
Müller, C. (2010). Employee motivation an incentives at Apple: Do incentives really help to motivate employees?. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.
Podmoroff, D. (2005). 365 ways to motivate and reward your employees every day– with little or no money. Ocala, Fla: Atlantic Pub. Group.
Shakhray, I. (2009). Managing diversity in the workplace: Seminar paper. Nordersteadt, Germany: Grin Verlag.