Sample Business Essay Paper on Organisational Behavior

Executive Summary

The paper will provide an analysis of Marriot International to understand its organizational behavior aspects. Organizational behavior involves the study of individual groups and the structure of the organizations with the aim of applying appropriate knowledge and techniques to improve organizational effectiveness. In addition, it will also analyze the implications of the leadership styles and motivational theories in employee performance. Individual behaviors and personality are significant concepts necessary in promoting the productivity and job satisfaction of employees. Therefore, the paper will provide a comprehensive analysis of the various of organizational behavior perspective

Background Information

Marriot is an international chain of hotels that focuses on providing and facilitating leisure and vacation experiences in the UAC another countries. The mission of the company is providing improved vacation and leisure services. The company is operated and run under a board under the leadership of J.W. Marriot, Jr the chairman and J. Shaw the president and the chief operating officer. The hotel is located in more than 60 countries across the world, with more than 4,000 hostels. It faces strong competition from Hyatt, Hilton, and Starwoods Hotels. Among its organizational culture, it depends on the various stakeholders to enhance the success and the improvement of services in the company (Locke, 2011). The stakeholders include independent owners, customers, franchises, suppliers and franchisees. In terms of the organization size, Marriot International has close to 129,000 employees. Marriot international organizational structure can be analysed under the following dimensions: formalization, specialization, centralization, personal ratio, and hierarchy of authority. The company follows a bureaucratic frameworks that comprises of strict rules and procedures, the rules and procedures guides the work in the organizations. Marriot international has a fixed job description with little flexibility. Thus, the structure makes it difficult to adapt to new changes in the market.

In addition, Marriot has done specialization through the division of jobs and activities amongst the various departments, such as finance and marketing. This makes it easy to improve the operation of the organization. The company is also decentralized to delegate the operation among the various branches. The head office receives many orders that cannot be maintained by the head office. Thus, the decentralization helps in controlling the work. In terms of decision-making, the head office makes the overall decision, leading to lack of motivation among the subordinates (Robbins & Judge, 2012). However, the decentralization process in the company helps in reducing the effects of demoralized employees. Moreover, the hierarchy of author of Marriot indicates that all the subordinates take orders for the managers of the various departments. Thus, the company conducts regular weekly meetings among the managers and employees. The organizational culture of Marriot comprises trainee programmes for the employees. This helps to offer improved training and skills to the employees for promotion purposes (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). As a result, Marriot International operations within the explained organizational structure and cultures.

Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior

In studying organizational behavior, people are exposed to various skills and knowledge relevant in improving organizational effectiveness. Organizational behavior emphasizes on understanding and explaining the attitudes and behaviors of both individuals and groups in the workplace. It has various benefits within the organizational setting. First, organizational behavior has the benefit of practical application. The knowledge gained can be used in developing the personal styles of leadership. It helps employees to learn the appropriate forms of leadership as well as personal development (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Another practical application is the choice of the appropriate problem solving strategy. The management would be able to select the fitting problem solving approach in the organization. In addition, it guides in the selection of an appropriate employee appraisal approach.

Second, organizational behavior supports personal growth among the various workers in the organizations. During the operations in Marriot International, the employees are forced to work with different people (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). Thus, organizational behavior gives the employees appropriate skills and techniques to work under diverse condition. This forms the aspects of personal growth that implies personal fulfillment. Since person are able to understand others leading to increased self-knowledge and self-insights. Organizational behavior also provides increased knowledge about employees working in the organization. Based on the various benefits, the study of organizational behavior is relevant for the workers in Marriot International.

Factors Influencing Individual Behavior

Various variables influence individual behaviors in the organizational. They include demographics variables, perception, personality, attitudes, abilities and skills. Demographic factors are among the variables influencing the behaviors of individuals in the organizations. The factors include nationality, age, sex, race, and education and social economic background among others (March, 2013). In most organizations, the people preferred are must be well educated with good social-economic origins. Such people are believed be better performers compared other employees in the organization. In most instances, the young and reliable professionals possess good academic qualifications and improved communication skills. Thus, the analysis of the demographic variables helps in selecting suitable employees for the various positions.

Abilities and skills also influence the individual behaviors within the organization setting. For instance, physical ability of the various persons is described as ability. On the other hand, skills define the ability for people to act in manner that allows other persons to perform well.  Thus, the individual behaviors and actions are strongly influenced by people’s abilities and skills. People can perform well in organization when their abilities and skills match the job description and specifications (Locke, 2011). The manager is required to match the abilities and skills of individual to the various suitable jobs in the organization. In addition, perception affects the behavioral patterns of the individual in the organization. It explains the cognitive process in interpreting the environmental factors. Different individuals have different ways of organizing and interpreting the various environmental factors. Various factors influence the perception of people. The understanding of perception is necessary for the managers. It is crucial for managers to develop favorable work climate (Robbins & Judge, 2012). As a result, the workers may perform in an appropriate manner if they keep in a positive approach.

Another factor that influences individual behavior is attitude Psychologists have provided that attitude is the aspects of responding to the favorable and unfavorable to the various objects and situations. The factors include family, society, and culture among others to promote the generation of attitude. The studying of the variables related to the job develops a good working environment forming a positive towards the various jobs. Since, the employees can perform better if they possess a strong positive attitude. The last factor that influences individual behaviors is personality. Personality identifies the study of different characteristics and traits of individuals, the interrelations, and ways in which people respond and adjust to other people and circumstances. The various aspects that influence the personality of individuals include family, society, culture, and heredity (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). Personality is known is the most complex factor among human beings that affects behavior. Thus, the understanding of personality creates a large opportunity of understanding individuals. This helps to focus their efforts in achieving the organizational goals and objectives. Marriot International demands for a particular type of employee behaviors that can be analyzed through learning, training and exposure.

Employee’s Personality and Job Performance

In understanding how employee’s personality influences job performance, it is crucial to learn the various factors that affect personality. The differences in the people’s personality imply how people behave differently in responding the various stimuli. Some of the factors that influences personality includes past experience, self-image, environment and education. For example, people with different education backgrounds consist of different personality due to the knowledge in their academic work. There is a direct influence between the personality of employees and job performance. The understanding the different personality helps managers to reduce interpersonal stress in the workplace as well as promoting communication strategies in the workplace. According to Robbins and Judge (2012), the personalities of different people can affect the performance at the workplace. Since, there is a speculation of personality driven approaches amongst the productive and permanent employees. Personality is seen as the main perspective of promoting individual behaviors. The model of personality is relevant in promoting and predicting the success of the organizations.

One of the common models of personality is the ‘Big Five, Model. The model describes the personality under various aspects including conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience. The concept of conscientiousness explains the extent of being dependable and persistent in achieving you personal goals. Conscientious people are reliable in improving the performance of an organization due to their commitment and focus in the organization. Emotional stability implies the aspects of individual calmness and self-control. This aspect improves the performance of individual towards meeting the overall success in the workplace. The third concept of extraversion indicates the measurement of sociability and ambitions among the organizations. Agreeableness explains the extent of cooperation with other employees in the workplace. Cooperation is appropriate creating good teams and groups for strategic performance. The last concept openness to experience of the Big Five model indicates the need for creativity and innovation (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). Employees are required to be creative and innovative in coming up new ideas to influence improved performance.

The combination of the five factors is appropriate in influencing the work in different ways. Fist, it enables the management to motivate employees towards meeting the goals of the organization. For instance, extraversion persons can be motivated by being given rewards for influence performance. Secondly, personality has strong influence on the people’s moods that affects the response to other people and situations. Many researchers have found out that conscientiousness and agreeableness affects the organizational behaviors that influence job satisfaction. The third way that personality influences performance is the strengthening of interpersonal relationships within the organizations. The relationships ensure that all employees can work with each other. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is another model that can be used to understand the behavior of employees. The individual behavioral differences affect the perception and judgment of people in the organizations. MBTI is used to understand the preferences of individuals as well as the identification of the 16 personality types. MBTI model perform personality tests to indicate the nature of employees along the 16 personality contexts.

Leadership and Motivational Techniques

The leadership of Marriot International has been influencing the performance of the organization. There are various leadership styles applicable in the workplace by the leaders. Based on the nature of organization, there are main leadership styles include autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles. Autocratic leadership style involves the leaders who usually make the final decisions affecting the organization as in the case of Marriot international. Thus, the decisions are made without the consultation with the subordinates. The leadership style helps in effective and faster decision-making processes.  However, the leadership style does not offer motivation to the employees. This causes increased employee turnover and absenteeism.

On the other hand, the democratic leadership style consults the subordinates, but makes the overall decision affecting the operations of the organization. This allows for creativity and innovation in the organization, as the employees are involved in the decision-making process. Thus, the leadership style provides for job satisfaction and productivity. The laissez-faire leadership style provides freedom to the employees in the decision-making and the approaches of operations. The leaders also offer adequate support to the employees in terms of resources and advice (Robbins & Judge, 2012).

In addition, Marriot International understands the importance of creating trust with the employees. The creation of trust emerges from a positive working relationship at the workplace. The concept of trust implies that the employees and managers enjoy mutual benefit from their engagements. The company can implement certain ways appropriate in creating trust with employees. The organizations should reduce the lecturing of employees. In most occasions, the manager lectures the employees to influence the employees on improved performance in the organizations (March, 2013). However, the situation implies that the management does not believe on the decision-making abilities of the employees. This leads to the loss of confidence as well as making them defensive. The managers should avoid lecturing the employees to create strong trust. Secondly, the managers should learn to listen to eth employees. When the managers listen to the employees, it implies that they value their feelings and thinking. This leads to improved communication and relationship with employees. In addition, listening to employees promotes their self-confidence and open communication for improved performance.

Most important, the managers should consider delegating various tasks to the employees as it crucial in building trust. The failure to delegate tasks to employees, it denies the employees the opportunity to improve their skills and techniques. Marriot International has implemented the decentralization process to motivate employees to promote job satisfaction. The motivation of workers is crucial in getting them to perform well in the organization. For instance, the existence of a positive relationship with employees promotes motivation of workers and job satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to motivate employees through the various ways including good pay, promotion and offering job security among others.

Motivational Theories

The various theories of motivation are built around the concept of meeting needs of the employees in the organization. Thus, it implies that employees are motivated by the desire to meet their needs. The motivational theories includes Maslow’s hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, acquired needs theory, cognitive evaluation theory,  the two factor theory, equity, and reinforcement theory. The Maslow theories classify the needs of people into a hierarchy. The needs one level must be fulfilled in meeting the next needs in the hierarchy. The application of Maslow helps the organization to understand the level of satisfaction to meet their needs for satisfaction. The levels of needs are as follows physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Alderfer’s ERG theory has three classifications including growth, relatedness, and existence needs (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010).

The application of the ERG theory is similar to the Maslow’s model, but it more rational.  The managers are required to master the needs of the employees for increased motivation and job satisfaction. The acquired needs theory implies that needs are acquired from life experiences. From the experiences, three main forms of needs emerge including need for achievement, affiliation, and power. The needs can be evaluated using the thematic apperception tests to helps managers in interpreting the needs for improved relevant managerial interventions. The cognitive evaluation theory uses two aspects of motivation the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic motivators include responsibility, competence and actual performance (March, 2013). On the other hand, the extrinsic factors include promotion and working conditions among others. The understanding of the intrinsic aspects influences individual on their job achievement and satisfaction. In addition, failure to meet the extrinsic factors the employees losses motivation at the workplace. Other motivational theories including the two factor theory, equity, and reinforcement theories offers the different forms of factors  relevant in  promoting employee motivation through job satisfaction.

Groups and Teams

 Marriot International understands the significance of groups and teams at the workplace. The work groups describe informal groups formed to handle short-term problems. On the other hand, the teams assist in resolving long-term problems as well as promoting coordination and structure in the company. The major difference between the group and teams is that team involves coordinated efforts. Teams are specialized including offering common resources and collective efforts. Thus, the teams are more structured than the work groups. In addition, the groups contain employees with equal abilities and goals. In addition, the meetings are usually less structured (Locke, 2011). The problem with the work groups is that they lack the different skills. The organizations need both the groups and teams to operate effectively. The work group’s helps in resolving simple issues, while the teams are more structured to handle the complex problems in the organization.

The implication of both work groups and teams reflects their ability to promote performance and cooperation in the organization. They enhance transparency and accountability among the employees within the work groups and teams. The strategic objectives of the organization value the efforts of the teams in building the various groups. The participation of the employees in the teams and groups also promotes commitment and consensus in the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2012). The authority excised by the teams also creates a strong influence on the attitude and actions of the employees. Since, peer pressure shapes the priority and efforts of individuals in supporting the team and group goals. In spite of their differences between the work groups and teams, they both promote coordination and performance in the organizations.


In summary, organizational behavior is necessary to evaluate the abilities of individual groups and the organizational structure for improved performance. Organisational behavior studies the various human components and the respective factors influencing organizational effectiveness such as personality. The organization structure of Marriot international can be characterized by decentralization of tasks, high formalization, centralization, high personal ratio, specialization through departmentalization and the hierarchy of authority. Marriot also consists of trainee courses and programs aimed at affecting quality skills to the employees. The company’s organizational structure and culture has been instrumental in improving productivity and employee performance. Some of the factors that influence individual behavior include personality of individuals, attitudes, perception, demographics, and their abilities and skills. The understanding of personality of employees is also crucial in promoting their productivity in the organization. Personality is influenced by a person’s experience, education achievement, and environment among others. The application of the various motivational theories including Maslow’s hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, and acquired needs theory among other is significant in enhance employee motivation and job satisfaction.















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