Sample Business Paper on Lean manufacturing

Lean manufacturing aims at eliminating wastes during the production process. Waste
occurs when the activities in an enterprise do not add any value. According to Shah & Ward
(2003 pp 129-149), lean manufacturing offers companies an opportunity to improve their
practices and eliminate waste. It helps in reducing costs and producing high-quality products.
Toyota should practice lean manufacturing to stop losses. Toyota is an automotive company
recognized worldwide, therefore makes lots of goods. The company manufactures cars and
distributes it to other supplying companies and individuals. The process of eliminating waste is
the adaptation of a just-in-time system. The process involves beginning to start the production of
a car immediately after the customer requests for it. Lean manufacturing will help in increasing
the speed of the production process while reducing costs.

Sources of waste

It is essential to understand exactly where the waste exists and what it is to carry out
elimination. In Toyota, the waste may be significant if the operation is not practical. The
company should create a plan that eliminates each waste with its effect. The wastes in Toyota
include overproduction, transporting, inappropriate processing, defects, and unnecessary
inventory. Wahab et al. (2013 pp 1292-1298) pinpoints that overproduction includes
manufacturing a product before it's required. It is highly costly because it prohibits the smooth
flow of materials and reduces the quality of products. To reduce overproduction Toyota
Company has implemented the Just-in-Time system where products are produced when needed.
Transporting products between processes add a cost that does not increase the quality of
products. Inappropriate processing refers to the use of expensive tools when cheaper tools would
be efficient in production. Toyota should use low-cost automation machines for effectiveness.

Lean manufacturing 4
Another waste is unnecessary inventory, which consumes productive floor space and
delays the company's detection of problems. These may cause significant loss and is a leading
cause of ineffective communication. Defects lead to tremendous effects in an organization. The
products cannot be sold or re-used Wahab et al. (2013, pp 1292-1298). To avoid defects, the staff
should be careful while using products. Wastes slow down the process of an organization to
achieve its goals. Toyota seeks to produce quality goods for its customers around the world. The
company needs to lower costs of production since it will maximize profits. Lean manufacturing
is an effective strategy.

Implementation of Total People Involvement

Lean manufacturing requires the full commitment of all employees, stakeholders, leaders,
and investors. The people operating equipment should be adequate and well-trained. To ensure
that lean manufacturing is successful in there should be total involvement from everyone. The
team should be motivated and flexible to the changes that positively influence the company.
Toyota operators have expertise in manufacturing settings of the cars made. The operators should
be allowed to air their ideas since they may help save the cost of production. Ayala et al. (2017
pp 538-553) highlights that lean manufacturing cannot be sustainable without the involvement of
employees. The leadership at Toyota should continuously motivate its staff to ensure there are
motivated to perform better. The team plays a vital role in maintaining the company's machine.
They know how to maintain and upgrade them; hence their input can be very beneficial.

It is essential to involve everyone in the Toyota Company about lean manufacturing. The
leaders should conduct training and awareness sessions on the project and understand what is to
be accomplished. The goal should be measurable, visual, and realistic. The employees should

Lean manufacturing 5
work towards improving their performance and adopt the new system. They should also be
willing to learn and gain more skills. Implementing lean manufacturing depends on the flexibility
of employees since they significantly impact customer demand. Ayala et al. (2017 pp 538-553)
pinpoints that flexibility involves the ability of the employees to perform in multiple departments
and environments. Toyota requires training its staff to ensure that they are efficient.

Process focus analysis

Lean manufacturing involves the improvement and management of processes and
operations in an organization. The decisions to be made in Toyota should be informed and aimed
at satisfying the customers. According to Strand & Næss ( 2017 pp 156-167), successful lean
manufacturing involves collective efforts from the employees. Therefore there should be an
analysis of how to bring positive change in the company. The difference is brought about by the
realigning process in multiple departments, which will influence the company in numerous ways.
There should be an analysis of the Toyota Company's leadership team, which will help determine
if the leaders respect each other. Management should eliminate departments that are not useful
because they increase costs through the use of resources. Another activity is to build on
teamwork and problem-solving techniques among leaders and employees. Every member of the
organization should understand the vision and mission of the organization. Toyota is likely to
face various challenges to become a process-based organization.

There is a need to understand the cycle time, layout type, and several stages to conduct
fair process focus analysis. The cycle time involves the amount of time that Toyota will use to
manufacture and sell a product. A car takes a period of up to two months to be completed
depending on the period. Management can reduce the period of manufacturing by increasing the

Lean manufacturing 6
workforce to increase productivity. The car goes through various stages, such as receiving the
order, requesting the resources, production, testing, and selling it to the customer. These
processes should be handled strictly to avoid mistakes.

Time reduction and Machine maintenance (TPM)

According to Singh et al. (2013 pp 592-599), total productive maintenance (TPM) is an
approach to maintenance that aims to achieve maximum production with no breakdowns, defects
accidents and provides a safe environment for work. The system emphasizes preventive
measures for maintenance and efficiency in operation. It also insists on education and
empowering operators of the machines. By maintaining the appliances, the company can
experience time reduction during operations. Toyota should adopt this approach because it helps
the company to save on costs on machines and also save time. To successfully implement the
approach, there should be shared responsibility for the equipment.

The first step to implement the approach is to evaluate the level of TPM. The next step is
to conduct training for the operators on the approach and how to maintain it. They should be
educated about the importance of preserving machines in the Toyota Company during cars'
production. There is a need to form a team that will spearhead the maintenance of machines for
effectiveness. The next step is to make a plan then train all employees about the approach, then
implementation can be done. Singh et al. (2013 pp 592-599) highlights that maintenance of
machines helps in time reduction therefore improves the effectiveness of the company. The
production of cars will take less time to be manufactured, which is likely to please the clients.
Toyota Company should form policies that will help in maintaining the approach. The approach
is very beneficial to the company because it reduces the cost of production and saves time. Time

Lean manufacturing 7
reduction leads to the production of more cars, which will in-turn, lead to increased profits.
Maintaining machines should be a group effort. Employees should understand the importance of

Pull production system

A pull production system is a manufacturing strategy that is used to eliminate or reduce
waste during production. According to Herakovic et al. (2014 pp 391-526), the pull production
system involves replacing resources only after being used; hence, the company makes products
that are equal to customers' demand. The companies resources are there used for production, and
the profit is received in a short period. Toyota should adopt this system because it will eliminate
waste and tools used have a significant relationship with the market share. The strategy begins
with the customer's demand. The demand determines the speed and resources to be used. These
prevent losses and protect the company from the overproduction of cars.

The pull production system has several advantages. The system frees up space in the
factory and reduces costs. The cost is mostly gotten from storying excess information. The
system increases customer satisfaction since products are made in demand. The strategy also
ensures that the products are of high quality since the number of processed products is
distributed immediately. It will also help Toyota save time in planning and producing goods that
may never reach the market. Herakovic et al. (2014 pp 391-526) highlights that the pull
production system increases flexibility since the organization can quickly respond to market
changes. The system leads to reduce the cost of production. Every resource that is used brings
profit. The company can make inventories and minimizes the possibility of conflicts. The system

Lean manufacturing 8
will help the company to recognize problems at an early stage. Toyota should adopt the approach
because it will help in its growth and facilitate achieving its goals.

Quality focus

Lean production emphasizes the elimination of all forms of waste. Resources that do not
contribute to the improvement of the value of products are waste. Waste elimination improves
the quality of products and customer services, enhancing the relationship between the company
and its clients. Toyota should maintain a good relationship with its customers. Toyota Company
will develop a focus on customer value. Quality focus involves reducing defects to avoid added
costs during production Dos Santos et al. (2015, pp 5947-5954). The company should always
focus on what the client wants and needs and seek to improve it continuously. Quality focus is an
essential system since it helps the company to build a good reputation.

Production of quality products maintains the client's satisfaction and reduces risks of
replacing defective goods. Toyota should continue building its good reputation for producing
quality goods. The focus should be on producing goods that meet the client's expectations.
Customers are attracted to companies that have quality goods. If a customer realizes that the
company does not meet the quality standards, they look for alternatives. Toyota should establish
its reputation by taking advantage of social media to gain positive opinions and criticism about
the cars they manufacture. If the company fulfills its promise to its customers, the customers will
be loyal to the company because they are assured of quality goods. Another benefit of focusing
on quality is that costs are managed effectively. Dos Santos et al.

(2015 pp. 5947-5954) highlights that low-quality cars' production leads to defects and the need to
retest the vehicle several times.

Lean manufacturing 9
Toyota requires adapting various behavior to improve the quality of their products. The
first behavior is to set clear goals. To produce quality products, a company must first define it
and describe its outcome expectation. These give the operators an overview of what is required
of them. The next behavior is to learn how to collect and analyze data frequently. Collecting data
provide the company with the chance to understand the changing trends in the market. Quality
focus is essential in a company since it continuously helps it to improve its services and

Lean supplier and customer relationship

Suppliers play a significant role in the management of a company. They can supply products late
lead to dissatisfied customers, which will destroy customer relationships and reputation
(Martínez-Jurado & Moyano-Fuentes, 2014 pp 134-150). These will, in turn, lead to an increase
in the cost of production. Blaming suppliers does not solve the problem. The company should
work together to find a solution. Lean manufacturing involves the total involvement of the
members of a company. Toyota should continue building strong relationships with its partners,
customers, and employees.

Conclusion and recommendations for implementation

Toyota should use a strategic plan during lean manufacturing to avoid confusion and use of
unnecessary resources. It is also essential to train operators and other employees on the
importance of lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing facilitates growth and maximizes profits
since it reduces the cost of production. It also aims to produce quality goods. Production of
quality cars improves the reputation of Toyota Company.

Lean manufacturing 10


Ayala, N.F., Paslauski, C.A., Ghezzi, A. and Frank, A.G., 2017. Knowledge sharing dynamics in
service suppliers' involvement for servitization of manufacturing companies. International
Journal of Production Economics, 193, pp.538-553.
Dos Santos, Z.G., Vieira, L. and Balbinotti, G., 2015. Lean Manufacturing and ergonomic working
conditions in the automotive industry. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, pp.5947-5954.
Herakovic, N., Metlikovic, P. and Debevec, M., 2014. Motivational lean game to support decision
between push and pull production strategy. International journal of simulation
modelling, 13(4), pp.391-526.
Martínez-Jurado, P.J. and Moyano-Fuentes, J., 2014. Lean management, supply chain management
and sustainability: a literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, pp.134-150.
Shah, R. and Ward, P.T., 2003. Lean manufacturing: context, practice bundles, and
performance. Journal of operations management, 21(2), pp.129-149.
Singh, R., Gohil, A.M., Shah, D.B. and Desai, S., 2013. Total productive maintenance (TPM)
implementation in a machine shop: A case study. Procedia Engineering, 51, pp.592-599.
Strand, A. and Næss, P., 2017. Local self-determination, process-focus and subordination of
environmental concerns. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 19(2), pp.156-167.
Wahab, A.N.A., Mukhtar, M. and Sulaiman, R., 2013. A conceptual model of lean manufacturing
dimensions. Procedia Technology, 11, pp.1292-1298.