Sample Business Research Paper on Operational Plan

Operational Plan

A business operational plan is a plan prepared by the firm or a component of the firm that clearly defines actions it will take to support the strategic objectives and goals of top management. It looks at the overall planning process of the organization (Morrisey et al, 1988). It is worth noting that all organizations and companies are always established with the aim of making profits. For this objective to be achieved the operations in any organization must be well planned for and these operational plans must be followed to the latter.

Nashok Sugar Company operational plan

Nashok is a middle-sized sugar processing company; it has approximately 500 staff and non-staff employees. By the year 1988, the Government of India gave mandate to California Agriculture research and Technical Services to do an achievability study on the feasibility of production of sugarcane, and start a lead project. It was most probable that the land would be used for agriculture because most of the land was used to produce subsistence crops only, and the other parts of the land was just used for grazing. After the research was carried, the region was found to be viable and hence the Nashok Sugar Company was constructed to help make the area agriculturally active and economically productive. The main reason why Nashok Sugar Company was constructed was to ensure or rather lead to growth and development in the rural areas by improving the agricultural productivity of the area. The establishment of Nashok Sugar Company enabled the growth of sugar cane in the area and more so, the farmers grew sugar cane in large plantations, making its growth to overtake that of other subsistence crops in the country.


Vision of the Company

Companies and organizations must always come up with visions that will act as a guideline for the operations and duties in the organizations (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia), 1992). Therefore, the vision of the Nashok Sugar Company is to produce the best quality sugar, in other words to be the best producer of quality sugar and related products in the region. This will ensure that the company puts in place strategies that will help it achieve its vision.

Mission of the Company

Mission is a statement that acts as a light that organizations have to follow until the end. Just like vision statements, for mission statements to be followed and achieved, there must be effective organizational management strategies that have to be put in place (Abrahams, 1999). Thus, the mission of the Nashok Sugar Company is to proficiently and exceptionally satisfy the various ranges of needs and requirements of the esteemed customers through intelligent innovative and instinctively ethical practices. Besides, the company looks forward to reach out to the whole world and have global recognition.

Company Core Values

Apart from quality, cohesion and integrity, Nashok Sugar Company shall profoundly gain its competitive advantage through the energetic talented and exceptionally skilled staff by being committed to the following core values:

  • Provision of products and services of high quality
  • High level corporate social responsibility
  • High level ethical company practices
  • Maintenance and conservation of environment

The entire above identified core values are very important or rather play a significant role in the achievement of objectives and goals of the Nashok Sugar Company. It is worth noting that companies and organizations need to come up with core values that are achievable though are better than those of their competitors (Tocquigny & Butcher, 2012). Competitors are some of the biggest threats to organizations. Therefore, the Nashok Sugar Company should ensure that its goals are not just put on paper but are implemented in order to have an upper hand over other close rival sugar companies.

The Company Management

The Nashok Sugar Company management is integrated into various departments according to the roles that these staffs are responsible for. All company employees are expected to carry out their tasks and attain their obligations as per the stipulations of the company manual. Proper organizational management ensures that the activities and operations are done effectively (Catlin-Legutko & Klingler, 2012). Besides, proper organizational management has been known to motivate the workers in any organization, thus enhancing their productivity and work rate. Moreover, in order to achieve profitability, which is the main objective of the establishment of Nashok Sugar Company, the company had to come up with a good organizational structure, which will help ensure that all individuals are accountable and responsible in their various fields of management. The organizational chat is as represented below:

The roles, functions, purposes and responsibilities of the various management personnel in the company are outlined below. The roles outlined below are in accordance with the company manual.

The President

In almost all organizations and companies, the president is the chief executive officer who has the final say in all the activities and operations taking place. The president in the company therefore carries the following roles and responsibilities:

  • He creates, communicates, and implements the company’s vision, mission, and overall the trend.
  • He leads, guides, directs, and evaluates the various works of the other executive personnel, including the vice president and other general managers.
  • Maintains the awareness of both the macro and micro competitive landscape, areas to be expanded, consumers, company’s markets, the various new industry improvements, and developments.
  • Acts as a representative of the company in various international situations. He is also charged with the mandate to present the reputation of the company in the most precedential way
  • Formulates and implements the various strategic plans that direct the behavior of the company.
  • He presides over all the operations and activities taking place in the organization or company. This has to be done following the direction established in the strategic plans.
  • The president critically evaluates the achievements of the company on the basis of success and prosperity.

Vice President

The Vice President is an assistant to the president and carries out the following duties in the company:

  • Assumes the roles and responsibilities of the president in his absence
  • Serves as an ex-officio member in the various committees brought out and formulated in the company
  • Helps in the updating of the company’s constitution and brings forth the changes, which need to be implemented where he acts in his capacity as the controller of various activities that affect the constitution of the company.


Sales Manager

  • Managing a team of 30 sales people comprising two senior direct sales executives and ten direct sales representative
  • Organizing presentations for the team members in different organizations to boost sales targets within the team.
  • Prospecting for new and wider markets to give referrals to my team members
  • Organizing for promotions and exhibitions for my team members in different target organizations
  • Organizing sales materials for the team members each and every day
  • Submitting daily activity reports to the direct sales manager (wealth management department)

Research Manager

  • Leads a team of 12 personnel in coming up with the different research topics that affects the company.

Advertising Manager

  • Initiates, directs, and does product branding among others.

Manufacturing Manager

  • Directs, controls, and facilitates the manufacturing activities that occur in the company

The planning process of the company

The company is geared towards the bringing excellence in its services delivery with the main aim of being a world-class producer of sugar. At this point in time, we want to look at the planning process of the company, observing the pertinent issues that relates to the company and how the company is deemed to move forward.

Levels of management and how they influence planning in the business

There are three main levels of management;

  1. Top management

This is the head management and is concerned with the making of long term decisions of the firm. This is the highest level of management in organizations and is often under the control of leaders such as the president, vice president and directors among other top officials. At this level, they determine the mission, vision, goals, and objectives of the business (Morrisey et al, 1988).

Functions of Top Level Management

  1. i) To begin with, the formulation and determination of goals and objectives is done by the top management in any organization or company.
  2. ii) They set up an organizational structure to conduct the operations together with providing overall direction in the organization.
  3. Middle Level Management

The middle level management in organizations is made up of officials whose main function ensure that the organizational policies and plans are put into practice. The middle level management officials are the subordinates to top management officials. Being in the middle, the managers have to perform as a link between top level and lower level management (Morrisey et al, 1988).



Functions of middle level management

  1. i) To implement the task set by top management and interpret the policies framed by the top management.
  2. ii) To ensure that organizations and companies are run effectively and in the proper ways.

iii) To cooperate for the smooth functioning of the organization and coordinate between different departments.

  • Low level management

Lower level management is also known as a supervisory level of management in which the supervisors and foremen and others like sales officers, accounts officers take responsibilities of the implementation and control of the operational plans developed by the middle level managers. It is clear that the actual operations are performed in this level of management. This level is concerned with actual implementation and control of operational plans (Morrisey et al, 1988).

Functions of Lower Level Management

  1. i) To give orders and instructions that are meant to be followed by workers, which is an important aspect in an organization.
  2. ii) To focus on the supervision and control of the performance situations in the organization. Importance of Quality in Planning

During planning quality will help define the scope of what is going to be carried out. Planning also helps identify the parameters that determine whether the project is a success, and how they will be satisfied from the start to the completion.


Importance of Productivity in the Planning Process

Productivity plays an integral role in helping determine the outcome of a given project in the end.

Importance of profitability in the planning process

This is an element that will help the organization in determining how much the organization will make out of the project in comparison with what they have put into it (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia), 1992).

Relationship between the human resource planning activities and the overall organizational strategy

Strategic planning is a process of determining how the long-term and short-term goals of an organization are achieved with the use of the resources that are available in a company or organization. It is an approach of analyzing the opportunities and threats present in the business environment to enhance efficiency and productivity, while Human resource planning is estimating of future demand for and supply of human resources needed in order to attain the set goals for the accomplishment of stated organizational goal. The human resource plan is made up of all the activities of human resource management such as, data collection, forecasting, recruitment, training and development, policymaking, motivation and development. Therefore, the relationship between Human resource planning and overall organizational strategy can be described in the following aspects: 

  1. Partner relationship of Human Resource plan

When the overall strategic plan and the human resource plan are formulated consistently, it clearly depicts that they are related and therefore have a relationship. In addition, it is also assumed that the human resource manager is a valuable asset to the organization, and makes sure that employees in the organization help fulfill the plan by participating in its implementation (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia), 1992).

  1. Follower relationship of HR plan

This relationship shows that a human resource plan forms an integral part of the strategic planning put in place by an organization. Its formulation is always on the basis of the attainment of a company’s mission, vision and objectives.

Management philosophy applied

Corporate Philosophy

The organization will use the corporate management philosophy though we have different types of management philosophies that are applied to motivate the employees in a business  These is based on the fact that business risk is found everywhere within an organization; including both financial and non-financial assets. Here employees benefit from a key component of human resources management and the entire compensation equation. If matters associated with benefits are not well dealt with, they can have serious repercussions from a financial and a labor relations perspective.

How the Structure Fosters a Positive Working Environment to the Employees

The structure fosters a positive working environment to the employees through the following benefits gains from the corporate philosophy

  1. i) Value-Added

It involves examining all key components of the employee benefit programs in place to assess how they are performing in order to identify opportunities for cost savings and controls as well identifying synergies and strategies for rationalization.

  1. ii) Risk Management

The organization uses stakeholders with all stakeholders to develop an in-depth understanding of your operations. Our consultants are able to identify and suggest remedies for potential business and HR risks, which if left unmanaged, could result in financial and labor relations issues.

  • Efficiency

This is an approach, which concentrates on the various elements contained in the benefit programs of employees. The business looks for efficiency opportunities and synergies in the components of its program

Types of controls in a business

Nashok will use the following control processes in his business;

  1. Administrative

These are the laws, regulations, policies, practices and guidelines that govern the overall requirements and controls for the business. The business, in order to comply with the law or regulation, may adopt policies and procedures laying out the internal requirements for protecting its data.

  1. Logical

These are controls such as firewalls, antivirus software, encryption and maker/checker application routines that enhance organizational planning.

  • Physical

Physical key to a door is always significant in the gain of access to an office space or storage room.

In order to achieve the above types of control Nashok will employ the following steps:

i)      Establishment of standards-

These are the plans, which have to be achieved in the course of business function. Normally they are classified into two –

a.      Measurable or tangible – standards that can be measured and expressed to the public or the members of an organization. The standards can be in various forms including cost, output, expenditure, time and profit among others.

b.     Non-measurable or intangible- These are standards whose measurements are not necessarily in form of money.

ii)    Measurement of performance-

This is a step where managers are in control, and this gives them the ability to measure the performance of their employees. These can be measured through-

    1. Attitude of the workers,
    2. Their morale to work,
    3. The development in the attitudes regarding the physical environment, and
    4. Their communication with the superiors.


Comparison of actual and standard performance-

Comparison of actual and standards performance is vital. The term deviation can be defined as the existing gap between actual performance and the targets that are planned in an organization. On the other hand, extent of deviation is a scenario where a manager in an organization has to find out whether the deviation is positive or negative. Besides, the manager has to find out whether the actual performance is in conformity with the planned performance. In this, managers are scheduled to be in total control of everything in their organizations. Once the deviation is identified, a manager has to think about various causes, which have led to deviation. The causes can be-

    1. Erroneous planning,
    2. Co-ordination loosens,
    3. Implementation of plans is defective, and
    4. Supervision and communication is ineffective, etc.
  1. Taking Remedial Actions-

Managers should take measures that are described as remedial when they come to know the extent of deviations and detect any errors. This helps in the effective management of organizations.

There are two alternatives here-

    1. Taking measures with the purpose and aim of correction when the occurrence of deviations is witnessed.
    2.  After taking the corrective measures, if the actual performance does not conform to the organizational plans, the manager will be forced to revise the targets. The controlling process stops at this point. Follow up activities need to be put up as they enhance or rather enable a manager to be in total control of their activities.













Abrahams, J. (1999). The mission statement book: 301 corporate mission statements from America’s top companies. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Catlin-Legutko, C., & Klingler, S. (2012). The small museum toolkit: Book 3. Lanham, Md: AltaMira Press.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia). (1992). Operational plan. Hobart, Tas: The Division.

Morrisey, G. L., Below, P. J., & Acomb, B. L. (1988). The executive guide to operational planning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tocquigny, R., & Butcher, A. (2012). When core values are strategic: How the basic values of Procter & Gamble transformed leadership at Fortune 500 companies. Upper Saddle River, N.J: FT Press.