Sample Education Paper on At-Risk Preschoolers/ADHD Students


Essentially, children between the ages of 3-5 years have a higher infinity to early
developmental delays that may result in attention deficiency disorders and hyperactivity. The
condition tends to affect the children’s overall behavior. The extent of this condition is
particularly notable among preschoolers in early childhood classes where the victims tend to
experiences instances of disruptive behaviors while in the classroom setting (Taylor, Smiley, &
Richards, 2016). Researchers clarify those developmental delays as more than the standard
presumption of a little delay in a child’s growth pattern. On the contrary, the condition involves a
substantial lag in most of the areas of development in a preschooler (Beasley, 2002). To this end,
students with ADHD are individuals in early childhood who exhibit instances of developmental
delays in the main areas of cognitive and intellectual growth. The extent to which ADHD affects
preschoolers is associated with a brain disorder that affects the normal functioning of the victim.
The condition is mostly identifiable and treatable in primary school or during the
preschool stages of learning. The students with the ADHD are labeled and categorized as
students with disabilities because, in the end, the condition applies as any other form of
invalidity that has the potential to derail a student's mental and cognitive growth. To this end, at
risk, preschoolers require a large degree of care and consideration in class and may need
interventions and unique approaches that aim to ensure the learners achieve full potential in the
class settings. The extent of ADHD is in most instances classified as a disruptive disorder that
may have a broad range of characteristics.


Characteristics of Students with ADHD

Indeed, as noted in the introduction part at risk-preschoolers or ADHD students suffer
from a brain condition that may significantly affect various elements of growth. One of the key
characteristics that capitalize early developmental delays is the inability in the students to
communicate or use a language effectively. Ideally, in the preschool setting, typical children will
use simple structured sentences to communicate or pass across a message. However,
preschoolers with early developmental issues will have challenges in the manner in which they
communicate or pass information. The other closely related aspect is the reality that such
individual students will have significant social cognition problems. For instance, the extent to
which students with early developmental issues relate socially with other students’ faces various
challenges as they may not be articulate in the language. On the other hand, the students with
ADHD and delayed development may not be as intelligent as their counterparts with normal
growth. In essence, inattention is one of the more common characteristics of students with early
developmental issues.
The extent to which a student tends to wander off the initial task may have a clear
indication of students with ADHD. Similarly, inattention may involve a less level of sustained
focus on various tasks and a very high level of disorganization. In many instances, the students
will also lack the slightest degree of persistence when undertaking tasks. Another common
characteristic is the extent of hyperactive activity notable in a preschooler. Ordinarily, while
younger children tend to have high levels of activities, at-risk preschoolers are overly fidgety and
are rarely under control. Research indicates that in unique situations at risks preschoolers tend to
be highly impulsive and excessively interruptive. The characteristics as mentioned above form
part of the aspects that may point to an early development issues in preschoolers and ADHD.


Best Practices When Dealing with At-Risk Preschoolers

One of the recent discoveries in the research on ADHD, and the possible areas of
interventions is the use of school and teacher intervention. Indeed, in the past, there were
questions over the extent to which a parenting contributes to the child's developmental delays.
However, over the last century, tremendous progress is observable, as more teacher-based
approaches become a core part of intervention for students with ADHD. For instance, teachers
have adopted a strategy that involves a questioning regime that is repetitive and that aims to
ensure that the student undergoes an entire lesson plan. On the other hand, examination ensures
that the student is constantly in focus when setting long-range goals seems untenable. Research
points out that sequencing and completion of tasks is one of the greatest challenges for students
with ADHD. The best practice, in this case, is the application of a teacher intervention where the
work is broken down to form tenable goals and plans that are easy to monitor and walk within
objective timings.
The other key best practice is to ensure that the teacher helps the students in setting
timelines for the delivery of tasks as a way of developing a higher level of focus and
concentration on a particular task. The interventions or best practices, in this case, touch more
specifically on the development of a strategy that can aid in handling the issues of attention
deficiency. For instance, by defining the requirements of a completed task, a teacher sets the
standard for the student by indicating what level of completion is acceptable. As a result, the
teacher avoids the possibility of a student jumping from one assignment or task to the next
without fully completing the previous tasks. Similarly, teachers who deal with preschoolers who
show instances of ADHD will often embrace the combined input of oral and written/visual

instructions as a way of enhancing a child's attention. For example, when giving instructions a
teacher may combine both verbal and visual cues that aim to improve a student’s attention and
memory. Repetition is a core element when handling at-risk ADHD students. The assertion is
because the students can learn and remember aspects related to the learning process efficiently
through repetition. As noted, language is a significant barrier in the course of learning especially
for individual children.
The most appropriate practice in such situations is the use of positive reinforcement
where the teacher does not always focus on the failures of the student but rather seeks to point
out any instances of success or accomplishment when dealing with such students.
Correspondingly, dealing with a student who shows signs of early developmental issues requires
a combination of empathy and patience. The assertion means providing reduced tasks for the
child and ensuring that every assignment focuses more on the quality as opposed to the quantity.
The approach ensures that the child can maintain the higher level of attention and focus on
matters at hand. The other key best practice when dealing with preschoolers who may have early
developmental disorders is the inclusion of constant checks that aim to ensure that there are
regular checks that review progress and detect any possible instances where the students may lag
behind. The teachers and parents must liaise in such situations to monitor the progressive growth
of the student. On the same note, teaching tactics that may enhance memory where the affected
students may learn visualization tactics may be critical. For instance, the teacher may use a
combination of seeing and saying as the way of boosting the extent to which the student can
improve their memory levels.


Education Inclusion

One of the common education programs in the process of enhancing care for students
with ADHD is the use of inclusion education for such students. The inclusion programs apply as
core educational need guidelines for the students (Worcester, 2011). Teacher-led educational
interventions mainly focus on controlling the academic activities of the learner with the aim of
developing an enabling physical environment for the students. The teacher-led education
programs must concentrate on areas within the particular child's immediate environment that
may have a direct adverse effect on the child's growth. The teacher-led educational techniques, in
this case, include the setting up of classroom programs that have a concise course timetable
where the educators and students have a clear time plan on the course direction and areas that
require special considerations (Kuehn, 2007). Ideally, the teacher-led interventions have a direct
effect on the students, because they have a direct command on the child and therefore, influence
the transformation process. In the end, the teacher-led intervention works more efficiently as
opposed to the non-intervention programs.

Giving Effective Commands

In essence, as a teacher, one has an immediate impact on the outcome of the particular
child. The intervention is critical because it enhances the teacher's control over the child’s
growth (Lvova, 2016). The effective command strategy is effectual because, in the end, the
teacher can influence the outcome of the child’s development. The influence occurs through
constant positive reinforcement when the child succeeds. On the other hand, the teacher
reprimands the students when they are at fault.


Support and Training

One of the other direct interventions is the use of support and training in instances where
school-based interventions apply. Ideally, the program ensures that the teacher and all other
individuals involved in the process of teaching the special need students have a higher level of
training on supportive structures that when employed may have a direct impact on the child’s
transformation (Yu & Sonuga-Barke, 2016). The fact that the process of change when dealing
with individual children requires the inclusion and support from the entire school setting means
that training is a critical element when handling special children.


The extent to which evaluation occurs entails more than just the regular
examination of progress through written tests. As a matter of principle, the areas to which such
programs are examined revolve around the progressive elements in the transformation of the
child. For instance, answering theoretical questions concerning the progress notable in a
particular child's growth may yield substantive information. On the contrary, the practicability of
some of these approaches can only be distinguished when one assesses the children from a
classroom setting (Brunk, 2006). To this end, evaluation should entail developing an
understanding of the school-based approaches that may ensure the minimization of elements
such as delayed development in these children. On the other hand, an evaluation must also focus
on developing an understanding of the dynamics that encompass ADHD as a way of establishing
contingency strategies that aid in dealing with children with delayed development.



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Lvova, O. (2016). Delayed memory in ADHD children. European Psychiatry, 33, S354.
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