Sample English Essay on Modern Human Trafficking

Modern Human Trafficking

What is human trafficking? There have been conflicting categorizations of criminal activities that constitute human trafficking among researchers, organizations, and criminal justice systems (Bakirci 160). However, all the actions considered to be trafficking involve some form of exploitation of victims. Such activities include sexual exploitation and forced labor. Despite lack of a clear definition and the covert nature of this unlawful activity, there have been estimated statistics of the number of victims in this modern-day slavery. According to CNN Freedom project, a CNN initiative to combat human trafficking, the estimations from different organizations have been between 10 million and 30 million worldwide. In 2007, the U.S. State Department reported that about 600,000 to 800,000 were trafficked across international borders each year (Grubb 73). There have been various efforts in fighting human trafficking, but the approaches by governments have focused mainly on maintaining law and order by apprehending the traffickers (Chuang 137). The main causes of the victims’ vulnerability are socioeconomic, and trafficking of people is a human right violation. Therefore, for long-term solution, and to be of assistance to the victims, the fight for human trafficking should be beyond rescue. In addition, governments should focus on policies that would solve socioeconomic problems.

In the year 2000, a wide-ranging definition was set by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons( Protocol) that defined trafficking as “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction,  fraud,  deception, the abuse of power or  a position of vulnerability, or the giving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” (Bakirci 160). Sex trafficking, forced prostitution or sexual exploitation has been the most prevalent form of trafficking, contributing 80 percent of estimated cases. The UN’s Office on Drugs and Crime estimated that human trafficking generates revenue of $32 billion (Cherish 203), therefore, ranking among the fastest escalating criminal activity in the world. Albeit the staggering statistics, there have been efforts to curb this unspeakable violation of human rights. At the international level, the United Nations passed the Protocol as an initiative to cub trafficking internationally, and it was adopted by many countries, however, it has not been fully implemented (Fry 121). Governments and international organizations are also spending millions of dollars in efforts to fight this crime.

Lack of awareness on the networks used by traffickers has been one of the challenges in investigating trafficking. Human trafficking involves more than migration, being tricked or being exploited. Usually, the influx is from poor countries to rich nations for economic reasons (Grubb 75). The victims are transported illegally with hope of getting jobs abroad. Some of them are women or young girls who are fully sponsored to travel, and are also offered accommodation by the traffickers acting as agents. Consequently, lack of funds causes the victims to start their life in debts, and the traffickers capitalize on this to exploit them sexually (Cherish 206). Secondly, being illegal immigrants, the victims are unable to escape due to fear of police and, therefore, they remain enslaved and locked in houses (207). Therefore, it is important that the criminal justice system is able to trail the chain of events in trafficking right from recruitment to slavery. This calls for international cooperation between law enforcers from countries of origin and destination. U.N. Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking encourages collaboration between all governments and NGOs in executing Protocol pledges. In addition, the restriction should not only be aimed at capturing the trafficker but the priority should be rescuing the victims and assisting them to get justice. In addition, victims’ should be helped in integrating back to their communities to avoid re-trafficking. According to cherish (202), the approach of just focusing on prosecuting the traffickers has caused re-trafficking due to neglect of victims.

Lack of distinction between forced labor and trafficking, and assumptions that trafficking must involve crossing borders have also being an impediment in this fight (Bakirci 160). Another term that is also used closely is smuggling of persons. In addition, the issue of whether there was initial consent or not by the victim arises during investigations. Trafficking occurs in a concealed network. For instance, there have been exploitations of domestic workers or house helps, who due to their desperate economic conditions are forced to persevere in foreign lands. Initially, the traffickers disguising as agents promise them good salaries. This could be a girl from an impoverished background who is sponsored by the parents to be taken abroad. If the job that turns out to be forced prostitution or labor, such a case should not be treated as smuggling or forced labor rather than trafficking. Therefore, law enforcers should be wise in handling the victims and avoid hurting them more.

Criminalization alone will not solve the problem of trafficking. The plight of the victims must be assessed rather than using them to only help in convicting traffickers. States have tendencies of holding the victims only for prosecutorial benefits or deporting them if they do not help (Chuang 151). Such actions put the victims under difficult predicaments due to fear of the traffickers. It is the high time that victim-oriented methods are applied. In addition, with globalization and inequality among nations, the fight against human trafficking may be futile if the economic disparities are not checked. Finally, the implementation of Protocol that emphasized on human rights consideration will be significant in handling human trafficking.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Chuang, Janie. “Beyond a snapshot: Preventing human trafficking in the global economy.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 13.1 (2006): 137-163. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost Web. 4 Oct. 2014

Cherish, Adams. “Re-Trafficked victims: How a human rights approach can stop the cycle of re-victimization of sex trafficking victims.” The George Washington International Law Review 43.1(2011): 201-234. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost Web. 4 Oct. 2014

Fry, Lincoln J. “What was the significance of countries ratifying the UN Protocol against human trafficking? A research note.” International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences 4. 2 (2009): 118-130. ProQuest. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.

Bakirci, Kadriye. “Human trafficking and forced labour: A criticism of the International Labour Organization.” Journal of Financial Crime 16. 2 (2009): 160-165. ProQuest. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.

Grubb, Deborah. “IV: The multi-faceted challenges of human trafficking: Modern-day slavery in a globalized world.” International Journal of Restorative Justice 5. One (2009): 69-103. ProQuest. Web. 4 Oct. 2014.