A theoretical framework is a perception used to analyze a given study. Therefore, theoretical frameworks are particular theories on elements of human existence such as human relations. A theoretical framework assists in the analysis of previous events by offering sets of questions and specific perspectives when carrying out the research. Several theoretical frameworks have been applied in the study. There is the post modernism, gender studies and anthropology.
Michel Foucault established post modernism. The theory highlights how people speak and think about their reality and issues related to reality. In this study the theory has been applied to address the issue of HIV/AIDS becoming a pandemic in Africa. The theory addresses the effects of this virus. It also addresses how the virus has been a contributing factor to the economic decline of the nations in Africa. The theory further offers a review of how the pandemic is spreading to the entire developing regions (Beck, Mays, Whiteside, & Zuniga, 2006). The main cause of the spread is brought by the social, cultural, and economic structure. The theory has further been applied to reflect on how the NGOs are causing positive impacts to various affected and infected people in the studied region. Through this theory, it is evident that without the input of NGOs, most of the affected and infected people would have perished. This is because, other than the disease, most of the organizations have come up with projects to control the spread of related diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis (Beck, Mays, Whiteside, & Zuniga, 2006).
The theory on gender studies analyzes how the elements of gender control our reality. This theory as part of the post modernism focuses on the social structure of gender. Through this theory, the study has highlighted the reasons for the spread of the pandemic in most of the regions in Africa. Most of the cultural practices overlook the reality of women as equal partners in the society (Adams, Hansen, Fox, Taylor, Jansen van Rensburg, Mohlahlane, &
Sikkema, 2011). The males therefore look down women upon. The traditional theories also highlight women as objects for the satisfaction of men. Such theories have led to the spread of the pandemic among women. The theory further highlights the reasons for the spread of this disease. From the studies through the theory of gender studies, there is need to understand that there are no relation between belief and the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus. The theory further reviews how the hierarchy in gender is legitimized.
Anthropology is the study of human culture. This theory seeks to understand why the cultural practices exist; it also seeks to find out why the culture functions in its present manner. This theory has been essential in understanding the history of the pandemic in the region. It has also been applied in comparing it with the present situation in the developing nations. It is clear that through the strategies placed by the governments in the developed nations, the pandemic has been contained. This offers guidelines to the developing nations in Africa on how to act to control the spread of the disease. The government in nations such as South Africa has an insight on how to run the economy for the greater development of the entire nation (Kareithi & Flisher, 2009). Anthropology offer purpose to the participants. Very many volunteers have taken part in the control of the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus. This has assumed many forms such as the management of the malaria projects. As these projects, present success stories, many patients are encourages to live and continue with their daily activities.
Adams, L., Hansen, B., Fox, M., Taylor, B., Jansen van Rensburg, M., Mohlahlane, R. &
Sikkema, J. (2011). Correlates of HIV testing among abused women in South Africa. Violence Against Women, 17(8), 1014-1023. doi: 10.1177/1077801211414166
Beck, J., Mays, N., Whiteside, A., & Zuniga, M. (2006). The HIV pandemic: Local and global implications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kareithi, M. & Flisher, J. (2009). Location of development NGOs providing HIV and
AIDS services to young people in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 24(2), 9-36.