Chapter Questions: Chapter 10 & 11- Study
Instructional adaptions encompass direction modification with the aim of ensuring independence among students. The three instructional adaptations that would be appropriate to use in a secondary education academic classroom are: instructional strategies, materials adaptations, and directions modifications Directions modification is a form of instructional adaptations whereby directions are used to crate visual or auditory overload. For examples, keys words can be highlighted, use of pictures as cues, or using simpler terms are used to assist students to interpret the directions, thus enabling the students’ ability to remember. Tactile cues are used to bring attention to enhance an understanding. This is applicable and successful among students with moderate to severe disabilities. Materials adaptations are used to assist students without disabilities understand and be part of lesson participation. Materials used can be enlargement or positioned to enable students to have a better view and understanding. In such cases manipulative, pictures, cards, or cure cards are used in support lessons, thus increasing understanding and improving retention.
Response requirement adaptation is applicable when students are not in a position to compete lessons assigned to them, even after modifications in materials or directions have been put into place. Thus, in such cases, the response is modified to meet the students’ needs and requirements. For instance, a student may be in a position to demonstrate mastery through speaking instead of writing and this limits the student to creativity. In such cases, it is necessary to reduce response requirements. Examples include the use of taped or oral presentations and the use of artwork and pictures as an alternative response mode.
Standard curricular is a locally determined state-approved general education curriculum that is used when providing instructional education to non-disabled students. It also implies that when implementing adaptations to curriculum content it is necessary to emphasize on adaptations that promote functioning instead of teaching developmental prerequisites. Applied curriculum is an instructional adaptation entails modifying directions or creations of more structure in the lessons in order to facilitate the students to participate in the lessons. Notably, instructional adaptations are not intrusive and time consuming. Instead, they help in building independence among students because the modifications make it easier for students to learn. Examples include the use of auditory or tactile cues, tape-record directions, and structuring of the lesson as well as using enlarged print, cue cards, and use pictures for educational purposes.
Using leveled curriculum is instruction-based curriculum that allows altering content. It is applicable when a student is not in a position to perform classroom tasks under standard curriculum, even after modifications in materials, instructions or in responses have been implemented. The similarity in the three is that modification is done on the curriculum in order to accommodate students and enable every student to learn. In addition, they can be used with all students in classrooms who experience difficulty in learning.
Applied curricular objective is to create greater access for general education curriculum for all students with disabilities to make good use of applied content. As such, the students benefit from the applied content. For example, pictures can be used whereby students can describe the contents to encourage comprehension.
Table 1: A Morning Schedule for a Typical Elementary Classroom Day
|7.45: 8.00||Arrival routine|
|8.00: 8.50||Taking attendance|
|7.45: 8.00||Shared reading and reading mini-lesson,|
|8.50: 9.50||Reading workshop (which includes book read-aloud and guided reading)|
|11.30: 12.00||Going Recess|
Table 2: A List of Critical Skills a Person with Moderate to Severe Disabilities May Need Assistance With.
|Taking attendance||Language and communications skills by the student, mobility skills, and socialization.|
|Going Recess||Self-care, mobility around the classroom or compound, communication and socialization, language and functional skills.
Self-care skills relate to developing independent skills related to eating, hygiene, and grooming.
Peer support for independent functioning can be used to help students with disabilities to cope in general education classroom. First, it is important for the student to build awareness and understanding among students about challenges faced and support required. This can be enhanced through inclusive classrooms in circle of friends. In such cases, the students compare their needs with those of students with disabilities and possible solutions proposed in order to make the circle look similar. This approach develops support and can be used to develop assistance to students with disabilities. However, it is important for teachers to determine the level of assistance required by the student with disability.
‘Peer buddies’ is another method that can be used to provide the necessary support. For example, this strategy is applied to foster relationships with students who are buddies with the affected student. This approach allows a small circle rather than the large circle around the student. The peer buddies reduce support from adults and teachers and it is effective in provision of support to impart functional skills, including socializations, language, and self-care. Notably, peer buddies can be effective in assisting a student with disabilities prepare for transition such as going for recess during the day time.