Sample Essay on Current Research in Cognitive Psychology II

Current Research in Cognitive Psychology II

Creativity

Mullet, D. R., Willerson, A., Lamb, K. N., & Kettler, T. (2016). Examining teacher perceptions of creativity: A systematic review of the literature. Thinking Skills and Creativity. 21: 9-30.

Creativity entails the ability to generate new ideas or being able to connect ideas in place to generate new concepts. Scientifically, it is a cognitive process that leads to the generation of new concepts of doing things. Cognitive experiments indicate divergent views on creativity among people (Goldstein, 2014). Certain researches indicate that creativity is influenced by the environment while others believe everybody has a certain form of creativity within them. The divergent views play out when it comes to the research on creativity among the students.

Creativity among the students is a subject that researchers continue to study in a bid to come up with more information. Teachers have divergent views on the ability of different students to be creative more than others. Some teachers allude to the fact that all students have the ability to be creative; however, others believe that creativity is not a preserve of all students. The teachers and researchers who believe that all students have the ability to be creative note that students only need to be guided in order to realize their creative potential. On the other hand, those who allude to the opinion that creativity is an innate quality in certain students believe that creativity can never be developed in certain persons.

Mullet, Willerson, Lamb, & Kettler (2016) in Examining teacher perceptions of creativity: A systematic review of the literature conduct a study to establish perceptions of teachers on student creativity. In their research, they note that the majority of teachers describe creativity in terms of intellectual ability or the ability to develop divergent thinking. Less of time will teachers ascribe creativity to originality, autonomy, and inventiveness. In their literature review, the authors find out that teachers’ definition of creativity is affected by their level of training. In most cases, their definitions defer from what researchers write in their works. Studies show that creativity is a factor of openness, ability to be critical, questioning of authority and non-conformity (Mullet, Willerson, Lamb, & Kettler, 2016). It comes out that teachers’ perception of creativity is determined by their level of training and exposure.

Learning environment influences the ability of a student to be creative. This means that certain students maybe be termed as less creative because they lack environmental motivation in place. Numerous studies allude to the fact that when students are exposed to a proper environment, they can develop high standards of creativity. Richardson & Mishra (2018) in their work entitled; Learning environments that support student creativity: Developing the Scale, they support the theory that a learning environment enhances creativity in students. In their work, they seek to develop a SCALE that educators and administrators can use in order to gauge and prepare an environment that enhances creativity.

Creativity among students can be enhanced by a number of factors. Richardson & Mishra (2018) conduct research through feedback from students and administrators on some of the factors that enhance creativity. They also make an observation of the active learning processes before coming with different learning environments that support creativity. In their findings, they establish that the creativity of the students is enhanced by the physical environment, learner engagement, and the learning climate. Out of the three factors, they establish 14 items of the SCALE that can help students develop creativity during learning. In the scale, the researchers seek to develop learning tasks, practices, and the deliberate interaction between learners and teachers, using the available resources. Therefore, the SCALE is a tool that helps teachers to deliberately prepare students to be creative. The benefit of the SCALE comes from the fact teachers can develop measurable creativity, rather than immeasurable potential in students.

However, certain studies bring about the negative side effects of creativity on people. creativity may arise from the need to run away from certain realities in life. Park, Ayduk, & Kross (2016) in Stepping back to move forward: Expressive writing promotes self-distancing, conduct a study on the effect of having the ability to write on people. According to their work, they note that writing is one of the ways that people express their creativity. Writing is a form of creativity that allows people to express themselves, either positively or negatively. On the same note, writing also helps people highlight some of the things that may be going on the right or wrong within society. However, this study indicates that expressive writing promotes self-distancing from issues. While writing, the writer seems to be stepping back from confronting the issues at hand, resorting to using written words. When this happens, the writer comes out of the situation but sends written words. This research is helpful because it shows us some of the effects of creativity on people.

Reasoning

Baillargeon, R., Scott, R. M., & Bian, L. (2016). Psychological Reasoning in Infancy. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 67:159-186.

Reasoning helps people develop specific conclusions on matters that arise. It is closely linked to how people make decisions and solve problems in place. Psychological experiments have been carried out over the years in an attempt to find out the cognitive process that makes people rational or not. These experiments have been conducted on both grownups and infants in order to make observations and explain the theories behind human reasoning.

Developmental research indicates that infants have the ability to reason according to cognitive ability, driven by certain environmental agents. Adults are known to be able to make sense of other people’s actions after mental inferring of the situation. In normal circumstances, infants have the ability to observe certain simple actions by adults. When such happens, these infants use their mental capacity to infer and predict the next action by the adult. In Psychological Reasoning in Infancy, Baillargeon, Scott, & Bian (2016) conducts research on the topic in order to study the ability of infants to observe and infer actions. The research points to the fact that through observation and inferring in a consistent manner, infants are able to develop their own course of action at any time.

In this research, the authors look at the ability of infants to respond to the consistency and efficiency of action. At all times, infants are always sensitive to the little consistent actions by the people within their environment. Such action defines their reasoning as they grow up. The research also goes further to identify agents of behaviors for the infants as they observe adult actions. However, the study notes the controversies surrounding implicit and explicit reasoning when it comes to certain psychological reasoning by infants. This study by Baillargeon, Scott, & Bian (2016) is important because it presents the development of infant reasoning.

Reasoning is an important part of life that defines daily lives. However, wise reasoning has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of an individual. According to Grossmann, Gerlach, & Denissen (2016), wisdom can either be stable or dynamic in daily interactions and either of the two has implications in reasoning. In their study, they conduct research on wise reasoning from the daily interactions by the people. They record how people reflect on the daily challenges of life in their diaries. They base their observations on consideration of others’ opinions and self-humility. In their findings, it comes out that wise reasoning is different from the social and non-social contexts. The state level-wise reasoning is more positive than trait reasoning.

Furthermore, the reasoning is a factor of cognitive psychology that can be explained through memory models. The normal memory models only focus on the storage and retrieval of information at certain times. However, Hierarchical process memory: memory as an integral component of information processing by Hasson, Chen, & Honey (2015) presents a different view that the neural process is influenced by the continuous processing of information. The continuous processing that takes place within the brain work within multiple timescales and not within specific times. The research argues that within the neural system, all cortical circuits have the capability to store information cumulatively over time. On the same note, the processing of the information can take place from shorter timescales like 10 milliseconds to longer timescales like several minutes. Hasson, Chen, & Honey (2015) note that the hierarchical neural system does not have restrictions within specific stores of information, but processes the information within the whole brain multiples times.

Decision Making

Goldstein, E. B. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 4th Ed. Wadsworth Publishing.

Decision-making requires a person to identify various alternatives to a situation before making a choice. The person has the liberty to consider beliefs, values, and preferences before settling on the final decision. The cognitive process that leads to a decision entails a continuous brain process that is influenced by the environment (Goldstein, 2014). Research experiments show that decision-making is a cognitive process that depends on emotions and other factors. Emotions are one of the factors that influence decision-making in people. Uncertainty of the outcome of a decision is a reason that makes emotion a factor in decision making.

The everyday decision-making dictates how individuals and institutions operate. However, studies show that emotion is an important aspect of decision-making because it may influence judgment. In fact, Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, (2014), in Emotion and Decision Making note that the recent studies on the impact of emotions are likely to influence the different aspects of decision theories. In their research, they find out that emotion is a powerful agent that could include pervasive, potent, harmful, or beneficial aspects towards decision making. The importance of their research also comes from the fact that emotion easily influences people’s judgment on a daily basis. It also means that a choice at a particular time or day by an individual could be influenced by the emotion at an instant. In their work, they conduct a literature review of the studies on emotions over a period of 35 years in a bid to come up with an emotion-influenced choice model, taking into account the traditional aspect and modern aspects of decision making.

Many studies look at the relationship between emotions and decision-making but basically relying on the emotional impact on decision making. The psychology of appraisal: Specific emotions and decision-making by So, Achar, Han, Agrawal, Duhachek, & Maheswaran, D. (2015) present further information on ways in which emotions affect information processing by individuals. The paper asserts that emotions easily affect the psychological processes of people with respect to the context of the decision to be made. Emotions shape judgments by interacting with the various contextual issues in place in order to change the mindset. The research is important it seeks to broaden the understanding of the emotional influence towards decision making. It also helps in gaining knowledge on the sets of emotions that emerge depending on the contextual circumstances.

Online shopping is increasingly becoming a normal way of life for many people. It provides certain advantages to the people, especially the convenience. People do not have to spend time in the stores to choose and make purchases. The increase in online stores is proof that more people are increasingly adopting the method. However, studies indicate that decision-making towards online shopping is influenced by a number of issues. According to SaharKarimi, Papamichail, & Holland (2015) in their study entitled; The effect of prior knowledge and decision-making style on the online purchase decision-making process: A typology of consumer shopping behavior, they note that prior knowledge of the product and decision making style are major influencers towards online shopping. In their research, they find that people with low level of knowledge engage in an extensive process of decision-making before settling on a choice.

Dual-process and single detection theories are some of the cognitive theories by researchers. The dual-process theory holds to the opinion that people can develop recognition decisions out of recollecting a former experience. On the other hand, the single detection theory recognition decision arises from some continuous building of memories that strengthen a resolve. The dual-process theory is based on familiarity with situations, a situation that may present itself in varying degrees. However, a continuous process is beneficial because it allows for the accurate processing of information within the brain. Such a memory model and processing allow people to make accurate decisions out of confidence if the information is in place.

References

Baillargeon, R., Scott, R. M., & Bian, L. (2016). Psychological Reasoning in Infancy. Annual

Review of Psychology. Vol. 67:159-186.

Goldstein, E. B. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday

Experience, 4th Ed. Wadsworth Publishing.

Grossmann, I., Gerlach, T. M. & Denissen, J. J. (2016). Wise Reasoning in the Face of Everyday

Life Challenges. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 7(7): 234- 430.

Hasson, U., Chen, J., & Honey, C. J. (2015). Hierarchical process memory: memory as an

integral component of information processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. (19)6: 304-313.

Lerner, J. S., Li, Y., Valdesolo, P. & Kassam, S. (2014). Emotion and Decision Making. Annual

Review of Psychology. 66: 799-823.

Mullet, D. R., Willerson, A., Lamb, K. N., & Kettler, T. (2016). Examining teacher perceptions

of creativity: A systematic review of the literature. Thinking Skills and Creativity. 21: 9-30.

Park, J., Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2016). Stepping back to move forward: Expressive writing

promotes self-distancing. Emotion, 16: 349–364.

Richardson, C. & Mishra, P. (2018). Learning environments that support student creativity:

Developing the SCALE. Thinking Skills and Creativity Vol. 27: 45-54.

SaharKarimi, S., Papamichail, N., & Holland, C, P. (2015). The effect of prior knowledge and

decision-making style on the online purchase decision-making process: A typology of consumer shopping behavior. Decision Support Systems. 77: 137-147.

So, J., Achar, C., Han, D., Agrawal, N., Duhachek, A., & Maheswaran, D. (2015). The

psychology of appraisal: Specific emotions and decision-making. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 25(3): 359-371.