Essays Assignment 2
- 1. Describe how gender segregation operates in employment. Point out some of the differences between occupations that have been traditional for women and those that are non- traditional. What are the implications of gender segregation for women?
Occupational gender segregation is the differences in access to economic opportunities in the labor market. Traditional economic theory suggests that occupational segregation by gender is an inevitable, systematic, and persistent consequence of natural differences in skills between men and women. Contemporary research shows that men underestimate the skills of the women on basis of their current underrepresentation in various occupations. Therefore, discrimination against women in these occupations is based on false assumption that increasing them would decrease the productivity. Men predominantly occupy senior positions whereas women are concentrated on lower paid jobs. For instance, women physicians in U.S earn 16 percent less compared to their male counterparts. Most employers, coworkers, and other actors segregate the female gender, as most women have to leave their occupations periodically due to childcare responsibilities. This is a contributing factor to the variations in segregation levels.
Traditionally, women worked in lower occupations such as hairdressers, receptionists, information clerks, farming, and childcare workers. Parenting was the primary responsibility of all mothers. However, the trend of lower education among women has started reversing whereby women’s inclusion in leadership roles, public, and private sectors to be parallel and equal to that of men. Women currently work in modern occupations such as physicians, engineers, and chief executive officer positions with adorable records of performance. For example, in Norway, women representations on corporate boards have increased thereby reducing wage gaps and bias against women.
Occupational segregation by gender affects negatively the earning of women. First, the occupation segregation decreases the earning of women working in female-dominated occupations. Second, it lowers the earnings of women working in highly segregated labor markets. Generally, occupational segregation on gender discourages women, making them lose motivation and morale necessary to perform their jobs effectively, which leads to the loss of productivity. Moreover, stereotype on women segregation may result in a feeling of resentment and loss of self-worth.
- How might our societal conceptions of men’s and women’s sexuality contribute to sexual coercion and sexual assault?
In the critique of male supremacy, the elements of with or without consent appear redundant. Therefore, misperceiving such women’s platonic issues as sexual interests has resulted in sexual bargaining and, consequently, sexual coercion. Sexual coercion is the act of using pressure or force to have a sexual encounter with another party without their will. Peer support among the males encourages sexual victimization of women. Sexual bargaining is dynamic in ensuring communication of interest or lack of interest between partners in a sexual relationship. However, men’s aggression in sex is explained by their more dominant position in the society than the one of female gender. Gender differences create the misperception that men have the final decision thereby placing a perceptual deficit of sexual intent based on gender. Men perceive both verbal and non-verbal behaviors that women in the society consider as friendliness. This creates gender differences perception whereby men over-perceive sexual interests whereas women under-perceive them. Generally, the assumptions of male domination over the female allow men to perceive sexual interest where it does not exist due to the over-sexualized social norms and culture.
Failure to agree to the men’s sexual intent results in coercion and sexual assault whereby the consent of one party, in this case the female, becomes invaluable. Male gender has a high degree of hostility and coercion supportive attitudes in relation to sexual perception toward women. Notably, provocatively dressed women show that they are sexually interested. Therefore, men strongly endorse the coercion to fulfill their desires. Key predictors that give men sexual coercion include the sexual dominance and socio-sexuality whereas women are coerced due to sexual compulsivity from their male counterparts. Moreover, men domination makes them behave coercively as a mean to obtain and maintain their power and sense of control. On the other hand, women sometimes behave coercively as a way of achieving interpersonal connection.
- Discuss 3 possible reasons/factors in the gender wage gap. How might we work for gender equity?
Occupational Differences. Occupational difference is a major contributing factor for occupational segregation resulting in the wage gap. Furthermore, men and women work in different organization occupations, which accounts for 49.3 percent of the wage gap. Most women are clustered in few occupations such as secretaries, nurses, and teachers. Notably, women are concentrated in fewer types of jobs, which are female dominated, and this is a fact that leads to lower wages in these occupations. Industries with female dominated jobs usually pay lower wages compared to male dominated industries with the similar skill levels.
Family Care Giving. Women are tasked with family responsibilities such as taking care of the children and aging, thus earning less due to occupation segregation. Comparatively, women with children have been seen to earn less as compared to those without children. There is a perception that women with children are distracted by their family responsibilities, and thus they are less dedicated to their work. On the contrary, men are considered as the breadwinners, and therefore they receive a pay increase after becoming fathers – a factor that causes variation in wage expectations.
Traditions and Stereotypes. Traditions and stereotypes are contributed by the segregation of particular career paths. They affect personal choices such as education and professional careers that women take. For instance, very few women choose mathematics, computing, and engineering careers, and therefore these women end up working in lower valued and paid jobs. Moreover, these traditions and stereotypes force women to work fewer hours per day than the male counterparts, creating a labor market due to family responsibilities.
To achieve gender equity, we must implement measure to alleviate the pay gap cause and symptoms. First, it is by improving the status of women in the traditionally female occupations to promote equalization of new entry-level salaries. Second, it is to improve the overall status of women in the society through the adoption of equity analysis in all programs for the suitability of the students.
- Discuss the feminist critique of traditional therapy and some of the ways that feminist therapists approach intervention differently.
Feminist therapy focuses on helping women on how to deal will stereotypes and the molds of traditional roles that hinder their growth and development. Feminist or gender sensitive therapy was developed as a response to criticism. Traditional psychotherapists were experienced as non-supportive to women. Feminists support the assumption that men and women had specific roles in the society, which they should venture outside the roles assigned. Feminist had strong beliefs, attitudes, and values. For instance, a feminist therapist does not value based on class. They further argued that the primary source of women pathology was social but not as the proclaimed personal and external sources. In view of human nature, the constructs of feminists’ therapy are gender-fair, flexible-multicultural, and lifespan oriented with four approaches of liberal, cultural, radical, and socialist feminism. In liberal, the feminist criticize that the major goal is the personal empowerment of women through dignity, self-fulfillment, and equality. Cultural feminism expresses the infusion of society with values based on cooperation to emphasize the differences between men and women. In radical feminism, feminists critique focus on the oppression of women embedded in patriarchy, and the major goal is to transform gender relationships. In socialist, the critique is based on the consideration of society problems through class, race, and other forms of discrimination.
However, feminists approach intervention through different techniques. Through gender-role analysis and intervention technique, people are able to understand their gender role expectation and impacts. Moreover, the power analysis and intervention emphasize on power differences between men and women in the society to help them understand how they should exercise the power. Notably, assertiveness, reframing, and bibliotherapy are other beneficial approach interventions to counter gender role stereotypes and gender inequality.