Level of Job Satisfaction of Employees working in Jobs Related to their Academic Qualification
The essay will analyze the ideas and works of other authors on the current topic in the research study. People are the most important asset in any organization. An organization will obtain the right type of employees when it gets individuals who are satisfied by their jobs. Non-performers employees are usually less motivated and satisfied by thier jobs. In current times, it is difficult to obtain persons who match their academic qualifications with their skills and academic specialization (Vieira 40). Thus, academic institutions have been blamed for their inability to produce students with the desired skills and techniques in the job markets. The students are unable to perform well in the current dynamic job markets. The increased level of globalization has expanded the labor markets and companies are able to obtain highly qualified personnel in the different roles undermining the significance and role of the local education (Ahmed et al. 73). This study will find out the current levels of employee satisfaction relying on two types of workers. This includes the people who are ready and willing to work in jobs that do not match their academic qualifications and others who are not willing to do such jobs.
The paper would establish the levels of job satisfaction on the two classifications of people working on their academic professions and others working on different fields. The current trend of the employment in the different industry sectors would also be important in understanding the nature of job satisfaction among the employees. (Millan et al 656) argues that it is also important to analyze the effects of the incongruence that occurs between the required job skills and the academic qualifications of different persons. This implies that the resulting job satisfactions levels could affect the performance and human resource management of different organizations. The choice of a career usually used based on different issues that are crucial in the life of a person (Millán et al. 655). The choice of job also determines the commitment and motivation of the employees towards the selected direction in their professional lives. Both external and internal factors have been seen to influence the decision of choosing a certain career as well as promoting the employment decisions of the employees.
Factors Determining the Choice of Career of the Individuals
There are exist two main classifications of the factors that influence the choice of careers among individuals. They include the internal and external factors
(Reid, Cameron and Debra 167) have made significant contributions in the analysis of the personality issues of an individual affect the choice of career in persons. The authors suggest that such factors include the internal traits, interests, and values. People usually have different personalities and that is why different persons ventures into different career fields. Each of the personality aspects is important in supporting the decisions made by the individuals in regard to their right job. Different researchers conducted revealed a common understanding of how the big personality aspects influence the individual choice on their job, job satisfaction, and future development and success. People who are extraverts have a positive impact in enhancing job satisfaction, better career choices, and enhancing good salaries. On the other hand, neuroticism leads to adverse impacts on employee satisfaction. Trait of agreeableness also caused people to be dissatisfied with their jobs. Some of the personality traits create a perception that some jobs are important than others (Reid, Cameron and Debra 168). Thus, the different studies confirm that the five personality aspects are significant in determining the choice of career among employees.
Through the work of (Gupta and Manju 12), I can understand the second influential aspect is that of the interaction with other people. This identifies the social ability and influences of persons that usually aligns with the choice of other persons and the immediate social environment. The last and important aspect is the individual’s desire to gain a strong socio-economic status. This is usually one of the important considerations by individuals in relation to the particular careers. People usually follow their ambitions and the desire to succeed in life (Reid, Cameron and Debra 164). The selection of careers is important in fulfilling their life ambitions. People may choose jobs that do not match their academic qualifications due to lack of adequate job opportunities relating to their career discipline.
Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain (472) provide that these are the other factors affecting individual choice of careers that are not even related to their academic qualifications. Some of the external factors include the pressures from external stakeholders, parents, and peer’s expectations and perception and resource considerations, such as salary or lack of proper career guidance. An individual who follows the mentioned aspects in choosing jobs lacks job motivation and satisfaction. In most occasions, the individual would end up frustrated due to failure to utilize talents and skills. Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain (472) offers factors, such as cultural contexts and family experiences, including parental encouragement and support could also affect the persons in choosing careers not related to academic qualifications. Both the external and internal aspects play a crucial role in influencing the people’s decision on their likely careers even if not related to their academic qualifications. Therefore, the research theme will evaluate the correlation of the levels of job satisfaction with the academic backgrounds of the individuals in the organizations.
Motivational Theories and Models
Motivation is usually identified as the way of following certain actions. It guides on the actions of people in making their personal and professional ways (Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain 472). The aspects of motivation seek to identify the satisfaction of employees in their jobs. If the employees are well motivated, they will work towards achieving their goals and objectives. In terms of career choice, employees will feel motivated when they utilize their skills and knowledge in achieving the organizational goals. This increases the level of job satisfaction among employees. Mulin provided the formula below to illustrate the influence of motivation on job performance and satisfaction.
Performance = function (ability -> motivation).
The managers should be able to understand the goals and career expectation of the workers in order to enhance job satisfaction. This identifies the motivational interest of the work that would improve the levels of job satisfaction. The motivation of employees can be divided into two aspects: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. First, intrinsic motivation identifies the non-tangible benefits that help the workers in achieving their goals in their careers. They include excellent work culture, the appropriate treatment of employees, respect, the recognition of employees, and respect. (Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain 472) also argued that the aspects have been crucially developed in both the organizational and team level. Most important, the company and line managers should be involved in the motivation practice to enhance job satisfaction. Second, various external aspects define the concept of extrinsic motivation. The external aspects include good pay, improved working conditions, and employee’s rewards among others. The external aspects are usually identified at both organizational and managerial levels. The success of the extrinsic motivational aspects in the company depends on the ability of the line mangers to support the motivational external concepts.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model
This model understands the nature of employee satisfaction and motivation among the various organizational and career levels. The model recognizes self-actualization is the highest level of human needs. When individuals reach the self-actualization level, they are happy and enjoy the benefits that come along with their jobs. At this level, the individuals are usually involved in the highest organizational levels supporting their personal growth and professional maturity in the organization.
Nevertheless, there are other stages that individuals must pass through in order to reach self-actualization, including self-esteem, love needs, and safety needs. The physiological needs identify the most important human wants to allow their survival. They include food, water, sleep, and shelter among others. Once the physiological needs are satisfied, the employees are able to move to next level of safety needs for satisfaction. The security or safety needs identifies the needs that required to maintain and the protect individuals from both physical and psychological dangers. The third level of needs is the affiliation and acceptance needs. This level identifies that humans are social beings who desires strong interactions abilities. The fourth level of needs is the self-esteem needs. The needs help to make people feel a sense of belonging in the workplace. They include status, power, and prestige among other workers. (Gupta, Madhu, and Manju Gehlawat 14) provides a relevant analysis of the different levels of needs among employees and how they affects job satisfaction. After meeting these needs, individuals would move to fulfill the last level of self-actualization. The last level identifies that persons are usually ready to maximize their potentials as well as seek to be successful in their ventures. The Maslow hierarchy theory model is significant in enhancing job satisfaction, since if workers are able to meet their needs including health and safety and basic needs, they will feel motivated and satisfied by their jobs (Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain 472). Similarly, if the workers are not respected and accepted in the work place, they would not take part in enhancing job satisfaction and thus, reducing the employees performance.
Herzberg’s Two factors Theory
The managers have been provided with the various motivational models in order to promote employee motivation and satisfaction. Herzberg’s two-factor model is one of the most influential theories in understanding the nature of employee motivation and performance. It identifies the different motivational aspects, in which the managers should put more efforts in understanding the motivational levels among the workers. Based on this model, such factors are important in understanding employee motivation, since it promotes the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Green and Yu 750). The motivational factors have been known as the motivators in the theory. On the other hand, there are second factors in which not present in the organization would lead to employee de-motivation referred to as hygiene. The Herzberg theory argues that the hygienic factors should be achieve first in order to promote the concept of employee motivation and job satisfaction among the individuals. It helps to eradicate any possibility of employee de-motivation.
The hygiene elements include the basic needs needed by individuals including the professional and personal activities. They influence good management and basic pay among others. Such factors are controlled effectively in order to promote job satisfaction. (Green and Yu 751) also suggested that the motivator factors are usually implemented to encourage or motivate the employees to work and perform better in the organization. They include reward structure, praise of employee, and the development of improved work culture. The factors are usually important in influencing the workers to work better in completing their objectives and organizational goals. The theory indicates that the hygienic factors enhance satisfaction of the employees, but the motivational factors improve the performance and additional expectations.
Motivational Potential Score
This is one of the most understandable models in employee motivation in the organizations. The model of Mulin identifies that there are five influential factors in improving the level of employee motivation in the organizations. The model indicates that companies with zero feedback usually record zero motivational score. This suggests that the managers must allow workers to work on their own objectives in order to offer regular feedbacks that act as motivation to the employees. The formula also suggests that three or more of the attributes including task motivation, significance, and skill variety must be part of the employee job design to promote employee motivation and performance. The organizations should ensure that all workers are given the freedom to perform their work, as relevant feedback is provided to enhance job motivation (Mavromaras, Peter and Zhang 304). As a result, it is important to comprise one of the factors and aspects in the employee’s work to promote job satisfaction and the achievement of a high potential motivation score.
Additional Opportunity Research on Performance Appraisals
There is an additional opportunity in the further study in the impacts of performance appraisals in the organizations. The topic of performance appraisals is significant in understanding the nature of employee motivation and satisfaction. Performance appraisal is defined as the evaluation and measurement of the employee’s job performance. In a traditional perspective, performance appraisal refers to the review of the employee performance by their supervisors. It helps to evaluate whether the employees archived the specified company goals and objectives. I appreciate the work of Bernardin and Michael the understanding performance appraisal to serve the various roles (p.375).There are four purposes of conducting the performance appraisals includes the understanding of particular behaviors, enhancing employee development, improved assessment of employees ability perform well and also acts as the awarding of merit pay.
(Belfield and Richard 540) analysis the theme of performance appraisal arguing that it seek to reward the employees for their strong contributions to the success of the organization. It also assists in creating strong relationships between the supervisors and employees in the organization. It has been suggested that the performance appraisals should be able to enhance the achievement the organizational objectives rather than a simple rating of the employee’s performance. (Bol 1550) also suggests the process of performance appraisals contains the elements of the identification, encouragement, measurement, evaluation, improvement and the rewarding of the employees (Bol 1550). Other concepts that could be used to describe performance appraisals include performance review, employee rating and results appraisals. Many studies have indicated that the performance is used in deciding of wages and salaries and the identification of the strengths and weaknesses of individual employees
Methods of Performance Appraisals
There are exists the different appraisals methods necessary in employee evaluation including the graphic rating scales, behavioral observation scales(BARS), mixed standard rating scales, and the management by objectives(MBO). However, most researchers have argued that the goal-based approaches measured against the employee performance are the most significant and relevant. It is suggested that the success or failure of the organizations is dependent on the nature of performance appraisal methods. In order to develop appropriate performance methods, companies should follow the following recommendations including the support for top management, use of qualitative criterion and the utilization of performance targeting aspects in appraisals among others.
According to (Georgellis, Thomas and Vurain 471), the 360-degree feedback model is a common and popular approach of conducting performance appraisals in the organizations. I agree with the author provides a multi-rater assessment model in the organization to support the integrating of the performance and the human resource management approaches. It is also flexible and changed oriented to deal with the organizational complexities. The authors (Georgellis, Thomas, and Vurain 478) also support my suggestion that the approach is helpful in handling potential legal challenges that would affect the outcome of the performance approvals. This leads to improved employee involvement and empowerment as well as extraction of the employee’s opinions and attitudes.
Impacts of Performance Appraisals in the Organizations
- Employee Motivation
(Green and Yu 751) suggests that performance appraisals leads to employee motivation by encouraging the employees who completes their assigned duties. It helps to determine the profession of the workers by investigating and understanding the actions of the employees amongst the deliberate behaviors to enhance the achievement of their goals. Through performance appraisals, employees are able to evaluate their imperative achievement in the organizations. This is also important in determining the need of training programs in the organizations. The authors also emphasizes that the training programs are usually important in enhancing performance and the achievement of the organizational objectives and goals. This relates to the appropriate assessments of the stipulated instructions for the achievement of different ambitions in life. In order to succeed in the current dynamic and competitive world, the organizational need the motivated employees. Motivated employees can be characterized by their ability to define the organizational goals and take appropriate actions in achieving the goals (Green and Yu 756). It is clear that performance appraisals promote the ability of employees to understand their objectives as well as developing significant strategic decisions through training. This helps to meet the needs of performance objectives in the organizations. The regular assessment of the employees seeks to focus on his attention on the expected feedback and motivation of the employees. Therefore, it indicates the relationship existing between performance appraisal and the motivation of the employees.
- Organizational Justice
(Belfield and Richard 536) also identifies the nature of performance appraisals in influencing organizational justice. The most common types of organizational justice include the procedural, interactional, and distributive justice. There are exists many researches that studies on the procedural, interactional and distributive justice in the organizations. The distributive justice concept identifies the perception of fairness of allocations in the organizations. It ensures that every individual receives fair amount of the resources in the organization. In terms of performance appraisals, distributive justice suggests that performance appraisals rating should be aligned with the employee expectations and outcomes (Belfield and Richard 538). The procedural justice identifies the ways used in aching fairness in the organizations. These include the different methods, mechanism, processes relevant in determining the appropriate outcomes in the organization. It concepts reflects on the process involved in making the allocation decisions. The application of the performance appraisals onto the procedural justice are explained by the two theories including “the control theory and the group value model” (Vieira 40). The control model suggests that individuals would choose to be involved in the organizational activities rather than been inactive participants. Thus, the different control process could be used to determine the perceived fairness in the performance appraisals processes. Findings from different studies indicate that the performance appraisal offers a positive impact relating to procedural justice.
On the other hand, the interactional justice identifies the justice relating to the interpersonal treatments among the employees. This relates to the interpersonal sensitivity and social interactions between various persons. It also focuses on the agents of the organizations relevant in making appropriate decisions and actions (Vieira 40). The attitude of the appraiser is relevant in understanding the effects of personal appraisals on the organizations. Any negative attitude towards the performance process would be detrimental to the provision of justice or the suitable PA rating. In spite of the adverse effects of the negative attitudes, performance evaluation provides various positive outcomes including promotions.
- Leadership Development
The performance appraisals are useful in providing a clear indication of the leadership abilities of the different employees. By understanding the leadership abilities and development requirements, the managers are able to come up with appropriate training programs and interventions. The programs are aimed at offering the employees an opportunity to exercise their leadership desires and abilities. Most important, the performance appraisal serves as an input to the concept of succession planning. This occurs through the identification of employees alongside with their particular competencies that would be useful in the organization in the future. For instance, it highlights the external aspects affecting the demand and achievement of better skills and techniques. In order to promote the maximum use of the performance appraisals, it is crucial to standardize the results assessed and analyzed to determine the actual competences and needs in the different organizational levels (Brown, Douglas and John 380). By the use of the performance appraisals, the managers are able to evaluate the level of employee training and development. For example, employees may be requiring additional training on the technology use or even customer service. Such areas might be targeted in the creation and implementation of significant training initiatives that boosts employee performance and competence.
- Employee Attitudes
(Valentine 362) argues that the selection of the most suitable performance appraisal method is crucial boosting positive employee attitudes. For example, when the employees receive positive feedback is motivated to perform better. The author is critical to note that in such case, the MBO and work standards approaches are most appropriate ways of performance appraisal. The inner attitude leads to their improved commitment and performance in the organization. Numerous supports that the goal setting approaches usually stimulate workers’ programs towards improved performance in the organization. When employees receive positive results they tend to work harder or try to keep the good results in the organization (Valentine 367). The performance evaluators should be knowledgeable in order to pride accurate and fair judgments. Since, any negative results affect the attitudes of the workers towards their commitment as well as affecting employee motivation. In addition, cooperative approach is crucial in enhancing the attitudes of the workers. It seeks to involve the employees in the decision making process. This makes them more self confident and proud of their organization. As a result, performance appraisal results could trigger positive employee attitudes.
Based on the understanding of (Ahmed 77), there are exists various gaps and limitations that would assist in improving the understanding of the prevalent research questions. I support the ideas of (Ahmed 78) in identifying the various limitations in research work on performance appraisals and job satisfaction. First, there are exists fewer local studies and research on the topic of appraisals systems with many studies conducted by foreign countries and regions. This makes it difficult to conceptualism the current impacts of performance appraisal in the organizations. Second, the research studies are time consuming and require many data resources. The lack of adequate time and resources would prove difficult in determining the impacts of performance of appraisal in the organization. In addition, the results must be continually reviewed due to the dynamic nature of the subject of performance appraisal. The researcher may also study other variables including leadership styles, job design, managerial aspects and empowerment that improve employee performance. In addition, performance appraisals seek to create a sense of responsibility among the employees.
In summary, responsible employees are associated with improved performance in the organizations. Such conditions create better circumstances for understanding the working environment. The workers are able to gain additional knowledge for expanding their work and access to information. It recommendable for managers to put much emphasis on the contentment of the employees as it forms an integral part of improved performance. For instance, the use of rewards and promotion programs would enhance job contentment that encourages extraordinary performance in the organizations. In addition, the managers should create a friendly and social environment in the workplace. This allows the employees to interact easily with each other. It also helps the workers to share information and knowledge on the different organizations processes. In the organizational perspective, the companies have recorded increased rate of turnover, since the individuals are unable to exploit their educational skills and achievement. Thus, they often search for job openings in other organizations. It is recommendable for increased teamwork initiatives and programs in most organizations. This ensures that employees from different academic qualifications are incorporated well into the organizational operations to promote performance and job satisfaction
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