Sample Essay on French and Indian War

French and Indian War

The French and Indian War is also called the Seven Years’ War. It is the name given to the massive conflict that involved France, Austria, Great Britain, England, and Sweden. This war marked a new chapter in the imperial struggle that had continued for a long time between France and Britain. Basically, this war was waged by England and her American colonies against France and some Indians found in North America. By the time this war came to an end, France had lost Canada’s control. The Indians who kept threatening American colonies had been defeated. To some extent, this war was seen as a world war with Great Britain spending a lot of money during the war with full participation of the colonists.

What caused the French and Indian War?

This war was simply a continuation of wars that had continuously been fought between British and French in North America. The French were in control of Mississippi River but this war broke out when they claimed control of Ohio River and started building forts in the valley of the river. The valley of Ohio River led to repeated conflict between the British and French leading to war declaration by the British in 1756. William Pitt, the future Prime Minister, financed and boosted the British enabling them to turn tides with significant victories at Fort Frontenac, Louisburg and Quebec, the stronghold of French in Canada.

British received Canadian territories during the peace conference of 1763 from France as well as Florida that was under the control of Spain. This opened Mississippi valley to the westward expansion. The war gave enormous gains of territories to Great Britain in North America but this was followed by colonial discontent and eventually the American Revolution due to the subsequent frontier policies as well as payments of the expenses of the war.

When and where the war was fought

The war was fought in North America, India and Europe. In Europe, France, Sweden and Austria, formed an alliance to crush Fredrick the King of Prussia’s power that was on the rise. The French and English fought for colonial domination in the Caribbean, India and North America. Ultimate dominance went to the English but this was at a cost that led to the Revolutionary War. The war lasted for seven years, since 1756 to 1763. Between 1754 and 1755, George Washing, Braddock’s successor, Gen. Edward Braddock and William Shirley were defeated by the French in quick successions.

However, there was a turn of the tide in 1757 when William Pitt, the new leader in Britain considered the colonial conflicts important in establishing British Empire. He heavily borrowed money to finance this war and paid Prussia who fought in Europe. He also reimbursed colonies which raised troops within North America. This led to successive victories of British in Louisburg, St Lawrence and Quebec.

Who was affected by the French and Indian war?

This war affected people in North America, Britain and frontier regions. The officials of British imperial and French as well as colonists tried to extend their influence in the frontier regions. French colonists and France in North America as well as the native allies were pitted against Great Britain, Anglo-America colonists as well as the Iroquois Confederacy in control of the upstate New York as well as some parts in Northern Pennsylvania.

French settlers were severely affected by the war. Due to the fear that they would support France during military confrontation, Governor William Shirley in Massachusetts expelled them to the other colonies of British. These suffered cruelly while in exiles. During the war, the British militiamen were affected because there was no interest in the war back at home. Their efforts were also hampered by the rivalries between American colonies as well as the greater success of France in securing the Indians’ support.

How the war was ended

With Montreal fall in the September of 1760, French lost its last stronghold in Canada. Spain and France joined efforts to fight England but Britain focused on seizing the territories of Spain and France in other parts of the globe. The 1763’s peace conference ended the war where British were given Florida, a territory from Spain and Canada which was a territory of France. The Treaty of Paris was signed on 10th February 1763 bringing the war to an end officially.

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