Sample Essay on Geographical Issues

Geographical Issues

SECTION ONE

The first section uses articles from the Lagos Vanguard in articulating how geographical themes are exemplified in the region.

Etomi calls for compliance with environmental laws- February 12, 2015

Environmental geography deals with the interrelationship between humans and their environment, and the articulated solutions to problems arising from the interaction. The article deals with the enactment of environmental laws to ensure protection and sustainable development in Nigeria. One of the environmental regulations is geared to controlling the nation’s air quality. The author opines that automobile emissions lead to diseases such as skin cancer and respiratory diseases as well as having adverse effects on global warming and the ozone layer (Staff). Nigeria, a nation with over 10 million vehicles, contributes to the air pollution menace. The implementation of the mandatory yearly test of all motor vehicles for toxic emissions as well as the installation of technology to mitigate such toxic substances is a timely reaction to the rising menace of air pollution. The program will thus aid Nigeria shrink its carbon emissions to be at par with international standards. The article thus depicts Nigeria’s timeliness in addressing environmental issues.

Our own brewing xenophobia- April 23, 2015

The article by Ochereome Nnanna expounds on the theme of cultural diversity, and, in particular, the resultant problems. Nnanna alludes to the xenophobic attacks in South Africa against foreigners and applies the same to Nigeria’s situation. Sectional and ethnic hatred in Nigeria has been on the rise, becoming one of the defining features of national cohabitation. Cultural diversity has its problems, one being civil wars and violent uprisings. Nigeria has endured civil war, but still experiences election violence. The violence is usually targeted at non-Muslims and Southerners by the Northern communities. The article, which came in the wake of the national elections, depicts the cultural and ethnic issues that the nation grapples with. Nnanna states that despite the peaceful elections, there is trouble in some parts of Lagos as hardliners lament the winning of representative seats by non-indigenes of Lagos (Nnanna). Despite the calls for “one Nigeria’, the author states, most people are ignorant of the term’s meaning.

Nigeria set to solve malnutrition challenge – Adesina – April 02, 2015

The article espouses the plan to solve the concern of nutrition in Nigeria. The nation has 35% of its children under five years experiencing stunted growth, and thus drastic efforts are required to ease the high levels. Dr. Adesina states that agricultural transformation is essential to eradicating poverty in Africa and creating a model of shared prosperity. He was talking at a dialog summit on nutrition that attracted numerous global leaders in the fields of nutrition, finance, and development (Staff, Nigeria set to solve malnutrition challenge – Adesina). The government aims to partner with the agribusiness sector in Africa to position itself as the largest producer of high-energy foods in the continent and negate the trend of importing 90% of the high-energy foods consumed in Africa. While at it, the government will have ensured that 80 million citizens would access bio-fortified foods, in effect helping ease the malnutrition problem.

Nigeria and the regime change agenda- March 21, 2015

Ned Nwoko’s article depicts the theme of geopolitics in shaping the international affairs of Nigeria. Nwoko states that the US has embarked on a regime change campaign against the Goodluck administration due to Nigeria’s inclusion of China in its oil affairs. Recently, Nigeria’s federal government signed a treaty with China that will see China build three refineries and participate in the exploration of 29 offshore fields. As a result, the US has embarked on a campaign to see Goodluck ousted from his presidential seat. The US blames the Goodluck administration for failing to contain Boko Haram and endemic corruption (Nwoko). The US has been a good ally of the Goodluck administration (GEJ) but since the signing of the treaty with China, the US has been campaigning for the opposition. It has even refused to sell military hardware essential in fighting Boko Haram to Nigeria. The GEJ administration has rated better in fighting corruption than the prior Obasanjo and Buhari administrations but the US roots for the two opposition leaders. The Oil treaty has thus played a significant role in changing the US policy towards Nigeria.

Array of performances as National Troupe preaches unity in diversity – April 16, 2015

In the wake of the peaceful presidential elections in Nigeria, millions of theater-goers were treated to an array of performances by the National Troupe. The show featured music, dance, narratives, and songs from various parts of Nigeria designed to represent the diverse cultural heritage. Mr. Adejuwon, whose troupe has a bias towards traditional displays, states that the performance was a reminder that, even though, there are differences among Nigerians, those differences should not stop them from inhabiting the same space (Alakam). Most of the performances were geared to preaching unity among the people. The performance shows the move by people and institutions including the entertainment industry to preach peace to the divergent ethnic groups in a bid to bring peace to the region.

Environmental pollution: Fear, crisis threaten peace of Ogun community – March 04, 2015

Environmental pollution, a widely discussed aspect of environmental geography, threatens the peace in Ogunrun-Ori. The residents of the state allege that a company called Austin has been engaging in unethical practices. The company emits hazardous black oil wastes that have destroyed aquatic life. Vibrations from its plant have also caused major cracks in adjacent buildings. The villagers tried petitioning the company to stop its operations, but that fell on deaf years. The company has also been engaging in corporate social responsibilities such as building churches in a bid to win over residents (Adelaja). The residents also state that the company has bribed environmental agencies to give them a favorable rating. The issue echoes a problem that is widespread in the region, that of bribing officers engaged in environmental preservation so as to continue with harmful waste management practices.

PART TWO

Recent issues in Nigeria reflect the growing trend of diversity and globalization. With regards to diversity, Nigeria exemplifies this theme with its numerous tribes and ethnic groups. The nation, which is divided primarily into four regions, boasts of diversity in both race, ethnic minorities, and religion. Lagos, the capital city, is a regional and international business hub that attracts many investors and tourists. There are also numerous foreigners and immigrants from neighboring countries and other nations that seek employment in the country, which boasts of being the third largest in Africa. The diversity in culture, however, is not without its issues.

Cultural diversity has been the cause of many conflicts and wars in many countries, and Nigeria is not an exception. 45 years ago the nation was embroiled in a civil war whose consequences are still felt today.  The post-war tensions are usually felt during election periods when ethnic groups support leaders from their ethnic communities (Nwabughiogu). Violence erupts when non-indigenes win in particular parts of the country. The diversity issues are also exemplified in the hiring and promotion exercises of major companies. In offering services, political leaders also favor some regions and groups over others.

Another area where conflict due to diversity is prevalent is with regards to religion. The two predominant faiths in the country are Islam and Christianity. The two factions are often warring against each other, as exhibited by the Boko Haram insurgency. The Muslim group, which is responsible for the abduction of young girls, rape, murder, and other crimes against humanity, was formed to curtail the growing prevalence of Christianity throughout the region. Their methods are similar to those used by other Islamite militia groups in the region and around the globe.

Lastly, diversity can be seen in the handling of foreigners. Foreigners are usually treated with suspicion and contempt, especially those from neighboring countries. Some industries have even implemented measures to bar foreigners from working under them. This indigenization moves evince the problem that diversity and globalization have occasioned. Indigenous people feel that residents have had a larger share of jobs to their detriment. This feeling, which spreads across many regions, is better exhibited in the xenophobic attacks in South Africa, where ironically the targeted group were mainly Nigerian immigrant workers. Diversity in the region thus has its pertinent problems.

Globalization can also be evinced by investments, trade and culture in the region. Many international corporations have set up shop in the region, with some basing their African operations in Nigeria. The globalization of trade has also been a significant boost to Nigeria’s economy. The country has major exports such as Palm oil, crude oil and entertainment that help drive the economy. There has also been an improvement of Nigerian fashion in the world as well as its music. Nigerian workers are also ubiquitous in other nations.

Just like diversity, globalization has had adverse effects in Nigeria. Many international corporations take advantage of the endemic corruption in the country to operate unethically. Unrestricted corporations dump waste and exploit the laborers. They also overexploit the natural resources in the region. Hegemony has also taken root in the nation, leading to an erosion of the traditional values and cultures of the Nigerian people. Due to globalization, the economy is also heavily influenced by world affairs

Works Cited

Adelaja, Bose. “Environmental pollution: Fear, crisis threaten peace of Ogun community.” 04 March 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 04 March 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/03/environmental-pollution-fear-crisis-threaten-peace-of-ogun-community/>.

Alakam, Japhet. “Array of performances as National Troupe preaches unity in diversity.” 16 April 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/04/array-of-performances-as-national-troupe-preaches-unity-in-diversity/>.

Nnanna, Ochereome. “Our own brewing xenophobia.” 23 April 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/04/our-own-brewing-xenophobia/>.

Nwabughiogu, Levinus. “Rescue Nigeria, save us from another civil war, Igbo leaders tells Buhari.” 21 March 2015. Vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/03/rescue-nigeria-save-us-from-another-civil-war-igbo-leaders-tells-buhari/>.

Nwoko, Ned. “Nigeria and the regime change agenda.” 21 March 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/03/nigeria-and-the-regime-change-agenda/>.

Staff, Vanguard. “Etomi calls for compliance with environmental laws.” 12 February 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/02/etomi-calls-compliance-environmental-laws/>.

—. “Nigeria set to solve malnutrition challenge – Adesina.” 02 April 2015. vanguardngr. Document. 27 April 2015. <http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/04/nigeria-set-to-solve-malnutrition-challenge-adesina/>.