Sample Essay on Glass Ceiling in Postal Service

Glass Ceiling in Postal Service


Author’s name Objective Methodology Findings Recommendations
GCD-99-26 To find out the promotion of women and the minorities to high-level executives Comparative study All races were comprehensively represented in all genders. However, the Hispanic women, native American men and women, and the white women were underrepresented Specific targets and measures to be determined to overcome this challenge
Baxter, J. & Wright O. E. It is more difficult for women to advance than men since the obstacles they face are greater than men’s Cross-sectional distributions Presence of strong evidence of gender gap in authority, with women being lesser than men Change of methodology to be applied to realize the exact glass ceiling effect in America and Sweden
Zhu, W., Sosik, J. Yang, B., J. & Riggio, E. R. Transformational leadership has a positive relationship with the employee identity in an organization Internet-based survey Employee psychological empowerment mediates effect of transformational leadership on members’ identification Motivational mechanism in followers is necessary for effective transformational and transactional leadership
Jung, D. I. & Avolio, B. J. Transformational and transactional leadership is positively congruent to the trust and value of the employees Cross-sectional experiment Transformational and transactional leadership has a causal relationship on the psychological empowerment on the subjects in an organization It is advisable for the researchers to apply longitudinal and experimental research for evaluation of the psychological empowerment
Zhu, W., Riggio, R., Avolio, B. J. & Sosik, J. J. Relationship between Leadership and moral identity Experimental methodology Leadership and moral identity in employees are interrelated Theoretical model of the transformational leadership is effective in the follower psychological empowerment


Glass ceiling is a term referring to the barriers minorities in the society face, which limit them from meeting their career objectives (GGD-99-26, 1999). Feminists regarding limitations to great achievements among women have employed this terminology to refer to minority men too. This study focuses on invisible challenges preventing adult female from advancing to the greater levels of the post office department in America, in spite of their achievements and qualifications. It is additionally intricate for women to ascend the authority chain of command in the post office sector in USA than men.

According to Baxter and Wright (2000), women face overwhelming challenges as they ascend the career ladder in the post office in America. This implies that women find it intricate to be promoted, thus the basis for gender disparity in the post office in America. According to Baxter and Wright (2000), women face more obstacles as they ascend career hierarchy at higher levels, connoting that the number of women promoted up declines according in relation to the level of hierarchy. The writers go on to assert that in as much as women continue to be promoted and become successful, they reach a level where they cannot attain managerial hierarchies due to the invisible obstacles, the major one pointed to as being a woman. This is further proven by a comparative study where most of the women in lower organizations bear lower managerial positions when compared to the number of women in top executives in large organizations.

Successful women are recurrently hitting the glass ceiling due to their gender instead of incapability whereas others are classified into specific jobs and positions due to gender. Irrespective of their abilities, the positions successful professionals have held in the post office job are not marked for leadership. This is due to other segregation marked by the male gender, such as corporate traveling and policy making which bars women from leadership positions (Zhu, Riggio, Avolio, & Sosik, 2011). Among the races, sexual discrimination is the main barrier of promotion among women. At least 50% of the corporate female leaders have sued their male counterparts on sexual harassment. This act has been tolerated yet it has intimidated and demoralized successful women in leadership positions. The male chauvinism, slow progress of women into career success, and the male outlook towards female bosses attribute sexual harassment. The attitude in the corporate world makes men take women in leadership positions less seriously. To appreciate gender equity in the post office in America, it is necessary to enforce anti-discrimination laws and apply leadership models like transformational and transactional leadership theories to improve the identity and psychological well-being of the subjects (Jung, & Avolio, 2000).

Transformational leadership theories application is essential in emphasizing the role and organizational integrity. This theory is necessary for the improvement of gender equity as it uphold ethics within a workplace, and teamwork. This theory is also necessary for encouragement of the minority groups in an organization to assume leadership positions since it focuses on the quality of work rather than the type of person in a position. Additionally, previous studies have confirmed that game theory rather than competition is necessary for the achievement of organizational goals. This implies that for the greater stability of a leader, greater support of the workers in necessary (Zhu, Riggio, Avolio & Sosik, 2012). This additionally implies that for a leader to be successful, he/she must be dependable and responsible.


Baxter, J., & Wright, O. E. (2000).  “The Glass Ceiling Hypothesis: A Comparative Study of the United States, Sweden and Australia.” Gender and Society, 14(2), 275-294

GGD-99-26. (1999). U. S. Postal Service: Diversity in High Level EAS Positions. 1999.

Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the

mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 949-964.


Zhu, W., Riggio, R., Avolio, B. J., & Sosik, J. J. (2011). The effect of leadership on follower

moral identity: Does transformational/transactional style make a difference? Journal of

Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18(2), 150 – 163.

Zhu, W., Riggio, R., Avolio, B. J., & Sosik, J. J. “Relationship between Transformational and Active Transactional Leadership and Follwoers’ Organizational Identification; The Role of Psychological Empowerment.” Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management. 2012. Page 186-213