Global Issues/Challenges and Local Challenges
Global Issues and Challenges
The growing trends in the nature of crimes on the global platform with regard to terrorism make security an important issue to consider. This is because with weak security system, countries are susceptible to major security threat as necessitated by the improved nature of organized and terrorism related crimes. The realization that without security there can never be development in any society makes security an essential need. There is no institution or organization that can invest in a war zone, and without development there cannot be security in the long term. This is because the people who will consider themselves hungry or neglected will either migrate or join organized international criminal groups (Morgan, 2014).
For effective security to be realized on the international scene there is need to foster measures that ensure security development. All the components of security sector which include the armed forces, the police, and intelligence agencies, paramilitary and national guards, must work as unity with a common objective. These units must play the role of establishing, defending, and imposing the state monopoly of legitimate force (Morgan, 2014). Upon recognition of the security and development nexus, it is important for the international community to ensure that all the security components are founded with regard to the rule of law. This implies that the operations of the security forces are not only founded on the constitution but are also effective in the implementation of laws and regulations. It is only a security sector that is established on such premises that countries can develop a predictable framework for effective economic activity, foreign investments, and ultimate prosperity. When security foundations are established on the rule of law, the international platform will experience growth in democracy and free market economy (Morgan, 2014).
Majority of the population in the developing countries lives below the poverty line. This is because such individuals cannot access resources, education, sustainable employment, and effective health care. Therefore, they have to survive under low living standards. This makes it difficult for such populations to become active participants in matters of economic development. Numerous factors cause poverty in developing countries. Insufficient income and lack of resources that ensure they live sustainable livelihoods can be cited as major causes of poverty. Furthermore, deficient expertise on how to extract and use resources for economic development, partly due to poor education, also results into poverty. Inability to participate in important decision-making processes and loss of livelihood because of economic recession or war-related disasters and famine are also leading causes of poverty in these countries (Grudem, 2013).
In addressing poverty related issues, there is a need to pool resources, develop support and empowerment mechanisms essential in improving the standards of education. It is also necessary to open economic platforms to provide employment opportunities for individuals living in poverty. This is essential because it will enhance their wellbeing by improving on their living standards. The realization that people living in poverty are vulnerable means that they must be empowered to participate in community and engage in economic activities (Grudem, 2013). This will introduce changes to the prevailing economic conditions in ways that will ensure equitable distribution and access to resources and opportunities. Moreover, empowerment will also provide a platform of expanding the capacities of those living in poverty with regard to improving nature of their livelihoods. The provision of quality education to population living in poverty will be vital in developing their knowledge and skills capacity, hence improving their quality of life (Grudem, 2013).
On the global platform, millions of refugees and internally displaced persons are seeking safety and shelter in different countries. Some of the root causes of the current refugee crisis include extreme poverty as well as political, religious, and sectarian wars. Economic hardships, especially in the Middle East, have also contributed to the growing refugee crisis. This is because groups seeking to acquire and control oil wells have subjected oil rich nations in this region to organized civil wars. Furthermore, unemployment, especially among the youth, has led to an increase in the number of economic migrants seeking better opportunities in established nations in Europe. The effects of climate change in countries such as Syria have also contributed to the growth in the problems of refugees. The country has been experiencing gradual decline for land and increasing the number of drought incidences. These instances have made land inhabitable forcing the movement of populations in search for new places of residence (Gowlland-Debbas, 2015).
Part of the solution to the refugee crisis is for the host nations to ensure their security. The international community led by the United Nations has the responsibility of supporting governments that lack enough capacity and resources, as stated in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1296, of 2000. Economic, political, and religious challenges have been cited as some of the major causes of the refugee problem on the international platform. The solution in such situations is to encourage state and non-state actors in the countries affected to operate in accordance with the demands of the law. This approach to conflict resolution will ensure that the parties concerned negotiate and compromise to enhance lasting and sustainable security conditions essential for local and international development (Gowlland-Debbas, 2015).
The increase in terrorism related incidences within the global system has led to the rise in organizations that engage in systematic promotion of anti-Muslim sentiments using prejudice fear and hatred. In the United States and most European countries, there has been an increase in Islam phobia partly because of the association between jihadist related sentiments propelled by extremist groups and the availability of organizations responsible for spreading the hatred. An additional reason for the prevalence of Islam phobia can be related to insufficient and misguided information on the teachings and objectives of the Islamic religion. These ignorant perceptions have led to the development of stereotypical connotations concerning the Muslim world (Green, 2015).
Part of the solutions to this problem includes engaging the affected and potentially affected population on sensitization programs focused on enhancing tolerance and understanding. Such education must not only cover Islam teachings but also provide information on other traditions and religions. Through this approach, it will be possible to differentiate the lies from the truth concerning religious practices and teachings. Additionally, it is crucial for the Islamic population to be active members of organizations focused on demystifying myths around Islam. This will provide firsthand information on the relevance of Islam as a religion dedicated to advice and peace. Moreover, the media plays an important part in dissemination information. It is the responsibility of governments to ensure that their media outlets are not used in spreading hatred but in protecting the constitutional freedom of speech and expression. This can be enhanced by improving on the constitutional and legal mechanisms charged with the responsibility of promoting the dissemination of truthful information to the public through different media outlets and the Internet (Green, 2015).
The earth faces numerous problems emanating from man-made contamination. Most of these problems result in environmental problems which cause long-term damage on the ecosystem. Environmental accidents such as oils pills, pipeline bursts, and radioactive risks sometimes have devastating effects on the wildlife and the ecosystem. In addition, water pollution is a global problem that keeps growing, considering that major industries involved in the manufacture of chemicals and plastic dump their toxic wastes in water bodies. Most of the human wastes and dumping end up in large water masses increasing pollution levels. Ozone depletion necessitated by the release of toxic gases into the atmosphere, soil contamination and hazardous waste have played a major role in defining the contemporary environmental challenges (Myers & Spoolman, 2014)..
Part of the solutions to the existing environmental problems includes the development and enforcing of laws that control or restrict the release of poisonous substances into water bodies and the atmosphere. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the governing bodies to ensure that populations are sensitized on the best ways of effective environmental management. This will play an instrumental role in enforcing environmental laws and enhancing the capacity of this population to protect the environment. One of the techniques of sensitizing the public on environmental protection is introducing such teachings as part of the curriculum. This makes education an essential tool in promoting environmental protection at all levels. Furthermore, the process of developing environmental laws should be accompanies by hefty penalties on industries that contravene the law. The international community has the responsibility of uniting countries towards developing unanimous polices on environmental protection. This will ensure unity and the development of a common ground necessary in policy implementation (Myers & Spoolman, 2014).
Local Issues and Challenges
In the contemporary family framework, divorce has become a common phenomenon. Numerous reasons have been cited as necessitating the prevalence of divorce. For instance, insufficient experience on how to handle conflicts or problems in marriages contributes to the high rate of divorce, especially among young couples. Financial challenges necessitated by insincerity among couples have contributed to a high number of divorce incidences. This is because when coupes fail to engage in full disclosure of their financial worth or disagree on how to spend their financial resources, it is possible that they will seek separation as the only way finding personal freedom. Other than the psychological effects of divorce on parents, it also affects the socialization process and nurturing of children. Essentially, the efforts of both parents are often crucial in the development process of children, especially in early childhood. This means that the absence of one or both parents has a high probability of affecting the eventual behavior that a child adopts in the future (Jones, 2014).
There are solutions to this problem, which include the organization of family workshops for parents and the availability of counseling services. This will provide parents with a platform of expressing their grievances and developing the best strategies to solve these problems. An additional solution, especially to the parents already divorced, is the organization of workshops on how to raise children as divorced parents. This will enhance the possibility that children will adopt socially acceptable behavioral traits necessary for their development (Jones, 2014).
The problem of unemployment emanates from lack of sufficient opportunities for those seeking work places. Much of the discussion surrounding the best solution to this problem are based on the role of the government and other concerned agencies in developing strategies that ensure faster economic growth and a reduction in real wages (Vogel, 2015). Faster economic growth is perceived as crucial in the generation of new employment opportunities while a reduction in real wages is a reaction to the perception that by demanding for higher wages, there are groups that have eliminated themselves from the available employment opportunities. Part of the strategies that the government, especially the United States, can use in curbing unemployment is by overhauling the National Labor Relations Act which will prevent unions from the delivery of monopolistic wages and fringe benefit premiums that often raise the cost of doing business and increasing unemployment rates (Vogel, 2015).
An additional solution would be for the government to improve the methods of accumulating and disseminating information on available job opportunities. This is through ensuring that the job centers have a nationwide and integrated database of employers, employees, and available opportunities. This will reduce the time an average worker spends on unemployment roll, hence reducing the overall rate of unemployment. Through this approach, the unemployment agencies would improve on their job search and requirements for job acceptance. The government should also introduce strategies aimed at improving the quality of education and training for the youth, while focusing on vocational skills. The government can also engage in the development of unemployment programs targeting different groups . This will reduce the cyclical, structural, and seasonal unemployment in the country (Vogel, 2015).
Over-Reliance of Domestic Workers
Domestic workers, especially in the UAE, have been instrumental in helping families undertake different home-related responsibilities. Most families in the UAE live as extended families. This means that the chores that define activities in such families may be overwhelming for family members, and this explains why there is an average of four domestic workers in UAE families . Despite the help that they continuously provided in families, over-reliance on their services has been cited as part of the major reasons why families in the UAE experience problems related to socialization of their children (Baldassar & Gabaccia, 2011). This is because the busy schedule of the parents means that they spend less time with their children hence limiting the development of an effective parent-child relationship. These parents depend on the expertise and experience of domestic workers for successful socialization of their children (Baldassar & Gabaccia, 2011).
After more than 3 decades of over-reliance on the services provided by domestic workers, it will be difficult for UAE families to live without them, as this would generate multiple social problems. However, through the efforts of the government and other concerned agencies, the UAE can ensure the development of accessible and affordable nurseries to help working mothers in the provision of effective childcare. Furthermore, the country should also develop programs aimed at sensitizing parents with older children on the best care approach. For instance, the UAE can embrace the Japanese model of childcare where at an early stage, children are taught on how to be responsible in school and at home. This will be instrumental in improving the nature of parent-child relationship in the UAE (Baldassar & Gabaccia, 2011).
Marriage and Dowry
Marriage, as practiced in many societies, is perceived as a union between male and female with the objective of offering companionship and procreating children for the continuation of a family lineage. In traditional marriage ceremonies, the male gifted the family of the woman as a way of appreciating the care they provided since her childhood in the form of dowry. However, in the contemporary society, the dowry system that characterizes marriages has been affected by norms and values that seek to degrade the worth of the women (Durães, 2009). Inasmuch as the status of women in the society is not equal to that of men, the dowry system has been blamed as the initiator of the inferiority mindset that is part of the reason for the plight of women. The male members of the society have increasingly used marriage and the dowry system to degrade women and acquire material benefit under the veil of marriage proposal. An additional effect is that it has promoted domestic violence and decreased the financial status of the family giving the dowry (Durães, 2009).
Education and sensitization of the society is a crucial approach in solving problems generated by the dowry system. Through education, it will be possible to equip members of the society with the necessary skills essential in decision making, especially in marriage relations. Furthermore, education and sensitization on matters of gender equity will help in demystifying the assertions propelled by the patriarchal society while promoting the development of a social infrastructure that considers men and women as equals. Providing quality education to children on the negative effects of the dowry system will help in inculcating the spirit of boycott overtime while at the same time seeking the development of alternative ways of engaging in successful marriages (Durães, 2009).
The establishment of the modern United Arab Emirates (UAE) came with the development of the ideology of emiratization which required government agencies and other organizations within the country to offer employment opportunities of Emirati nationals. The exponential economic growth that the UAE experiences can be used as an indicator that it is able to provide numerous employment opportunities for its nationals. These results of economic growth have not been witnessed in the employment sector considering that the country still has millions of unemployed youth. The UAE government has been successful in transforming the country into a global financial and trade hub but has been unable to meet the needs of the local workforce. This has prompted the government to allow for an influx of skilled and qualified workforce from abroad to meet the demands of the private sector (Erdogdu & Christiansen, 2016).
For effective implementation of the ideology of emiratization, it is the responsbility of the government to provide training programs to its citizens to ensure that they are highly qualified and capable of meeting the competitive job market demands in the private sector. Such programs would include the development of a talent acquisition strategy aimed at attracting UAE nationals with the necessary skills and experience. It is also the responsibility of the government and the private sector to establish an effective relationship with the institutions of higher learning within UAE. This is crucial in the promotion of UAE national into organizations to improve on their skills and capacities. In addition, through such a relationship it will be easier to monitor and manage UAE national turnover. This is realizable through effective coordination with the business support team in the country, which would recommend appropriate solutions in addressing any challenges (Erdogdu & Christiansen, 2016).
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