Human resource management is a procedure tasked with planning, developing, and organizing the workforce or physical and human resources in an organization. It involves attracting potential employees in order for human resource managers to select, train, assess, and reward persons successfully introduced to work in the organization. Leadership and cultural issues as well as labor and employment laws influence human resource management. More so, human resource management ought to ensure the organization is aligned to legal and authoritative requirements including allowing employees to join trade unions. Thus, human resource management is a skill functioned to ensure discipline among employees is maintained. It is also tasked with formulating strategic decisions and policies. They should be implemented across the organization to promote professionalism to carry out duties, operations, and functions with dedication, skills, and knowledge. This maximizes and increases efficiencies in the organization as the outputs are high quality and standardized (Benoît, Robert & François, 2005).
Human Resource Management, Job Performance, and Motivation
Human resource managers recruit new employees in the organization to increase, enhance and expand organizational operations and functions. Consequently, they ought to ensure persons selected, hired, and trained are compensated fairly. This encourages them to respect performance management requirements in order to develop the organization. Thus, human resource management is also tasked with developing employee motivation, administration, communication, safety, wellness, and training. The social and working culture in the organization ought to manage employees and staff. The working environment should therefore be effective and efficient in encouraging and supporting employees to increase and expand organizational outputs. In order to achieve this, human resource management ought to be aligned with human resource performance and motivation functions. They both undertake administrative and transactional roles and responsibilities. They are strategically formulated, developed, and implemented to add value in the firm. The firm should utilize organizations’ resources at the disposals to demonstrate the value of human resource management in relation to performance and motivation programs (Vishal, & Shailendra, 2009).
Studies and research articles assert various factors influence job performance rates among employees. A person employed to work in an organization they derive job satisfaction was compared to individual lacking job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is highly influenced by motivation at the place of work. Job satisfaction refers to the pleasure, happiness, and satisfaction derived from undertaking roles and responsibilities in the organization. Thus, a person deriving job satisfaction is more productive than their counterpart. Job satisfaction, therefore, requires an employee to have the will, desire and, positive thoughts to undertake various operations and functions in the organization to foster growth, development, and expansion. Ultimately, for employees to achieve job satisfaction, the human resource management task force should motivate the employees. The human resource practices should also be formulated, created, and implemented to promote and enhance employees’ skills. They should be aligned to the organization’s training, promotion, compensation, motivation, and remuneration practices (Benoît, Robert & François, 2005).
High performances in an organization attributed to increased efficiencies, functions, and operations in a firm. Structures and management systems in the firm should foster and encourage employees to embrace excellence coupled with hard work and creativity. This further translates to job satisfaction, high performances, and impressive performance appraisals among employees due to motivation (Vishal, & Shailendra, 2009).
Employee motivation involves observing enthusiastic levels among employees as they undertake organizational functions and operations. This involves focusing on their arrival times into the organization’s working environment, social interactions with other firm employees, and the efforts they exert to carry out duties, tasks, responsibilities, and assignments they are allocated. Human resource management believes employee motivation is directly linked to job satisfaction, performance, success, and the rate of growth and development in the organization (Ruth, 2013). Collegial attitudes, teamwork, and desire for excellence among employees indicate motivation to work and develop the organization. Performance appraisals can be utilized to measure and evaluate employees’ performance rates and motivation. They indicate the quality of work produced by employees, the initiatives they prefer to implement within their working environment, and the challenges they face (Rizwan & Azeem, 2010).
The content theory seeks to explain why employees experience changes within physical working environments in an organization. This theory includes theoretical affirmations from Abraham Maslow and David McClelland as well as psychologists attempting to expound on human beings and changes. The content theory explains specific factors that motivate human beings and/or employees to feel appreciated in order to change their working attitudes. These positive changes can be reflected through performance appraisals (Sandra & Bernard, 2010).
McClelland’s theory of needs is a proposal. It affirms human resource managers need to understand the needs and requirements among employees necessary to undertake their duties and responsibilities in the organization. The needs and requirements employees desire to play crucial roles in influencing staffs behavior and motivation at the workplace. This theory is further divided into three needs. They include the need for achievement, affiliation, and power or authority. The need for achievement translates to employees’ desires to succeed and achieve individual and career growth. The need for affiliation refers to desires among employees to be associated with staff socially acceptable in the firm. More so, employees desire to be affiliated with people regarded as hardworking attributing to the organizations’ growth, development, and success. It also involves employees’ desires to belong in a group of conformed members (Sandra & Bernard, 2010).
Lastly, the need for power and authority involves desires to control, manage and influence other staff and employees in the organization. Thus, it involves encouraging and motivating employees to succeed and achieve authoritative managerial positions. These positions award them with abilities and skills to exercise powers in directing employees to achieve increased outputs with high qualities and standards. All these needs can be compressed to employees’ desire for achievement. Consequently, they translate to employees engaging in a competition to achieve a competitive advantage. The competition includes undertaking more duties and responsibilities in the organization, seeking more opportunities for the firm, and exercising domination to achieve satisfaction as well as effective and efficient outcomes. However, employees need to possess talents, skills, and knowledge acquired from training to achieve the three needs (Sandra & Bernard, 2010).
Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory on the other hand is based on job satisfaction. Herzberg asserted job satisfaction and dissatisfaction exist in equal scales. He developed hygiene factors influencing job satisfaction among employees. They included remuneration terms, levels of job security, and the condition of the physical working environment. If employees regard the working environment as a danger to their health, they develop a negative attitude and perception. As a result, they begin to report late to work coupled with lack of motivation to achieve high quality and effective organizational outcomes. More so, employees need job security. This awards them with a motivating opportunity to compete and seek for success, power, achievements, and authority to record career and individual growth (Sandra & Bernard, 2010).
More importantly, employees are highly motivated if they are motivated in equal measures to the roles and responsibilities they undertake in the organization. Thus, if they are not paid in accordance to the various functions and operations they undertake in the firm, they derive job dissatisfaction. Consequently, they are demoralized and discouraged to achieve high quality and standardized organizational roles and responsibilities. The Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory therefore listed various motivating factors. They included awarding employees with a sense of recognition, acceptance, responsibility, and achievements. These factors facilitate and promote employees to derive job satisfaction further reflected through staffs’ performance appraisals (Sandra & Bernard, 2010).
Employees are vital human resources in an organization. However, they are often neglected facilitating them to underperform and fail to undertake the duties and responsibilities they are tasked with in the organization with confidence. Human resource managers should therefore research on factors that motivate employees to increase output and derive job satisfaction. Motivation is a thrust of inspiration encouraging employees to have the will and desire to do their best. Thus, threats and forcing employees encourages staffs to develop fear and resentments as they work in the organization. This prompts them to achieve job dissatisfaction that further constitutes to demoralization. Acknowledging employees are vital human resources in the organization and awarding them can build and increase their confidence, desire and willingness to continue working in the firm. Thus, they feel motivated to continue working in an organization associated with safe physical working environments for the employees. More so, they derive job satisfaction from working with a team of hard working and highly achieving employees. Ultimately, they feel motivated to work in an organization they can record personal and career growth to achieve a powerful and authoritative position in the organization.
Benoît, M., Robert, P., François, R. (2005). Introduction: HRM and Job Performance Incentives, International Journal of Manpower, 26 (7/8): 613 – 618.
Rizwan, S., & Azeem, M. (2010). Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Service Organizations of Pakistan, International Journal of Business and Management, 5(11): 213-222.
Ruth, M. (2013). How to Monitor Employee Motivation, Satisfaction & Performance, Demand Media Report.
Sandra, G., & Bernard, W. (2010). Theories and Principles of Motivation, Los Angeles, University of California.
Vishal, P., & Shailendra, S. (2009). High Performance HRM Practices, Organizational Citizenship, Behavior, and Organizational Justice, Indian Institute of Management.