Sample Essay on Identification terms and Major Essay

Identification terms and Major Essay

Truman Doctrine

A policy was announced by President Harry Truman of the United States on March 12, 1947. It served as a clear warning to the USSR- even though there was no specific nation that was mentioned-that the United States of America would intercede to support any country that received threats from a takeover by an armed minority. Truman stated that the policy would support free individuals who were not willing to resist endeavored subjugation by outside pressures or armed minorities.

There were a number of other international policy problems that influenced President Truman’s decision to assist Turkey and Greece. With respect to the detorariating interrelationship with the Soviet Union and the appearance of the Soviet interfering with Turkish and Greece affairs, the withdrawal of British help to Greece offered the mandatory catalyst for the administration of Truman to reorient the foreign policy of America. This term had historical significance because it overturned the Monroe doctrine and resulted in a Marshall Plan. It served as an example to the principle of collective security resulting in the establishment of a network of allies and friendly states that received military aid at a free cost.

Marshall Plan

It was an American initiative to assist Western Europe, in which the United States of America provided more than 12 billion dollars with the main objective of rebuilding Western Europe economies economically after the end of the Second World War. This plan was announced by George C. Marshall on June 5, 1947. American key objectives were to abolish trade blocks, and stop the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan effectively sparked economic recovery, accomplishing its goal of restoring the confidence of the people of Europe in the economic future of their own nations. This plan was significant because it enhanced federalism and economic integration of Europe, and established a mixture of public organization of the private sector comparable to that in the domestic sector of the US.

W.E.B DuBois

He was an American civil rights activist, a historian, a sociologist, editor, author, and a Pan-Africanist. He was born in February 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He was among the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) IN 1909. Du Bois main target was racism and he powerfully protested against discrimination in employment and education, lynching, and Jim Crow laws. His cause entailed individuals of color everywhere, specifically Asians and Africans in colonies. He was an advocate of Pan-Africanism and assisted in organizing a number of Pan-African Congresses in the fight for independence of African colonies from European powers. W.E.B Du Bois was of historical significance because he advocated for immediate social and economic equality for Africans in the 19th and 20th century. He also founded NAACP that exists until present.

Roy Cohn

He was born on February 20, 1927. He was an American attorney who became popular during the investigations of Senator Joseph McCarthy’s into communist activity during the Second Red Scare in the US. The political connections of his family enabled him to secure a job with the attorney’s office of the United States. He was an assistant attorney in the US and the only participant in the Rosenberg trial who became known majorly in relation with events unconnected to the case. The most important contribution of Cohn to the trial was his direct examination of major witness David Greenglass. In 1953, he was appointed as a chief counsel by Senator McCarthy. Regardless of his professional success, he was beset by lawful troubles for instance federal charges like conspiracy, bribery, and fraud, of which he was acquitted in different trials in In June 1986, Cohn was disbarred by the state of New York after a number of accusations of unprincipled conduct as an attorney.

Lavender Scare

It was a period of fear and persecution of homosexuals by the federal government in the US during the Cold War. During this period, Americans were accused of being gays and were to quit civil service jobs. The majority of the individuals believed that homosexuals would reveal government secrets hence they were considered “security risks.” During this period, LGBT citizens were persecuted by their government, but through local communities and organization, they persevered.

Domino Theory

It was famous from the 1950s to 1980s. This theory speculated that if one nation in a region were under the influence of communism, then the neighboring nations would follow in a domino effect. The United States administration used the domino theory during the Cold War to explain the want for American intervention around the globe. This theory was described by President Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States during a news conference on April 7, 1954 when referring to communism in Indochina. The United States took part in Vietnam because of the fear of the domino effect. It had fear that a takeover of Vietnam by a communist would mean a takeover of all other nations of Southeast Asia and this would intimidate allies of the United States like Japan and Philippines. This theory was further used by Johnson and Kennedy administrations during the 1960s to explain the increasing involvement of American military in the Vietnam War.

Emmit Till     

He was born on July 25, 1941. Till was abducted from his uncle’s house by Roy and his half-brother J.W. Milam. He was beat and mutilated prior to his shooting and then dumped his body in the Tallahatchie River. Roy and Milan were accused of kidnapping and murdering Till in September 1955. They admitted the accusations in an interview with Look magazine. In 2004, the case was reopened by the US Department of justice. As part of the investigations, Tills body was exhumed and an autopsy was done leading in a positive identification. He was reburied again after the identification.

The trial of Milam and Bryant got the attention of the press. The murder of Till was considered a pivotal catalyst to another phase of the Civil Rights Movement. The events that surrounded the death and life of Till still resonate presently.

Freedom Rides

Freedom ride was a succession of bus trips through American South to complaint about discrimination in regional bus terminals in 1961. American status quo was challenged by the freedom riders by riding regional buses in the South in varied racial groups to contest local customs or laws that enforced discrimination in seating. The violent reaction s provoked by the freedom rides bolstered the integrity of American Civil Rights Movement. They called on the nation to disrespect the federal law and local violence that was used to enhance discrimination in the Southern United States. The freedom rides were sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.

Tills case was very significant in the history of America because it stunned the country and enforced to confront the issue that injustice was rampant in some states like Mississippi.


It was used to refer to seven large residential developments built by William Levitt and his company Levitt and sons in the United States of America. They were built after the Second World War for the veterans that would come back with their families to receive housing facilities. There were also similar houses built allowing a quick recovery of expenses. The houses were very standard because they had great appliances, a white picket fence, and greener grasses. The actual sales of Levittown started in March 1947, and approximately 1,400 homes were bought within the first three hours.

Levittown was significant in a number of ways for instance; it served as an example of the mass assembly of apartments. Other houses were designated into churches hence providing conducive living environments for veterans who returned to their states.


The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was initiated in April 1960; by a group of individuals who were leaders of the sit-in, protest movement formed on February 11960 by four black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina. Even though Martin Luther King thought that the organization would act as a youth wing of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), these students were very independent and initiated their new strategies and projects. SNCC and SCLC worked together in the early years of the Civil Rights Movement. SNCC was very significance because it resulted in the end of discrimination in twenty-six southern cities. Additionally, student sit-ins became successful against discrimination in swimming pools, churches, beaches, and public parks among others.


It was a military and political alliance of 28 European and North American nations, bound by similar democratic values with the key objective of attaining defense and security. NATO was formed in 1949 and it played an exceptional role in upholding security and stability in the trans-Atlantic area during g Cold War. The first time in history that NATO invoked Article 5 of the Washington Treaty was during the 9/11 terrorist attacks against the US.

NATO was very significant because when the Cold war ended, it transformed itself to attain the new security challenges of the other century. Presently, the operations of NATO entail spearheading the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan, making sure that there is a secure and safe environment in Kosovo through the mission of KFOR, and contributing to global counter-privacy attempts of Africa.

Bull Connor

He was born on July 11, 1897. He was an American politician who acted as a Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, during the American Civil Rights Movement. In 1963, Martin Luther King launched a number of non-violent anti-segregation demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama. Bull Connor responded to the demonstrations by ordering his police department to use police dogs, and fire hoses to break up the protests. This day symbolized the most inhuman aspects of the resistance of the white to the blacks Civil rights.

This term is significant because Bull Connor was an activist of the Civil Rights Movement.

Joe McCarthy

He was born in Appleton on November 14, 1908. He served as a United States Senator between 1947 and 1957 when he passed. He was recognized as a visible public face during the period of Cold War tensions when there were widespread communist subversion fears. He was noted making remarks that there were a number of soviets and communist spies and sympathizer in the federal government of the US and this resulted in him being censured by the senate of the US. Joe McCarthy had a negative effect to the American society because he compelled the America to be part of the anti-communist hysteria that led to the marginalization and imprisonment of innocent people.

Part III: Major Essay

When the majority of the individuals think about Civil Rights Movement, they think of the period between 1950s and 1960s. Abolition of discrimination was one of the major events that took place during this period. The Brown case was considered one of the pivotal moments in the American history race interrelationships and the start of a broad Civil rights Movement that increased in the 1960s. In December 1955, there was a massive boycott of buses. The boycott started after a white bus driver was arrested for failing to obey laws that required the black people to move at the back of the buses when there were no seats available for the whites. The Montgomery movement hurled Reverend Martin Luther king to become the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. By 1957, Martin Luther King had established his Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SLLC) to continue with the struggle.

The developments that took place in 1957 motivated other advocates of civil rights. One was the approval of the Civil Rights Act. It formed a Civil Rights Division within the Civil Rights Commission and the Civil Rights Division that was given the authority to carry out investigations on racial problems and provide recommendations for the same. In 1950s, the majority of the young people became annoyed with the slow lawful process of cases. The local people made a decision take an action in order to change racial patterns that were taking place in their communities. In 1964, ten years after Brown case, approximately 1% of the blacks would attend public school with whites.

This led to the formation of Civil Rights Organizations for instance; the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), all focused on direct actions for instance demonstrations. In 1963, there were protests in Birmingham, Alabama organized by Martin Luther King and Bull Conner. In 1964, President Johnson implemented a bill that entailed not only a job description title, but also gave him the authority to create a new agency known as, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

Even though discrimination at school remained pervasive until the beginning of 1970s, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 acted as a landmark measure that would bring discrimination to an and in most of public accommodations. The civil activists now started advocating for the right to vote as an objective. This resulted in attacks on civil rights activists in 1965. There was violence against women and men that joined the protests fr5om Selma to the state capital of Montgomery and President Johnson strongly supported the reforms. By 1965, the Civil Rights Movement had started achieving its objective because they were less committed to violence and there was less discrimination. Just five days after the implementation of the Voting Rights Act, burning and looting stated in the neighboring state known as Watts. The blacks were whipped and later on decided to distance themselves from emphasizing on nonviolence that was spearheaded by the President.

By 1968, the two organizations (CORE and SNCC) that had initially been formed collapsed due to lack of financial support. The Vietnam War also negatively affected the political coalition that had enabled President Johnson to get a landmark of other victories for instance, federal aid, Medicaid, and Medicare. Another significant blow to the Civil Rights Movement was the assassination of Martin Luther King on April 4, 1968.

The Civil Rights movement was of some significance to the blacks because it gave them confidence in their capability to plan and effect political change. They also attained greater pride in their cultural attainments and strengths especially in the fields of sports, dance, and music. The movement further played a significant role in assisting a large number of African Americans in securing middle class job opportunities. Additionally, the armed forces worked hard to bring to an end discriminatory promotion and recruitment procedures and initiated integrated forces.

The civil rights activist did not attain much between 1959s and 1960s because most of the things they tried to resolve fall back in 1970s and 1980s. The Civil Rights Movement has continued to suffer from the blows that initially affected it in 1960s. This was because advocates like Martin Luther King thought that America would tackle serious issues like economic and social inequality, but it failed to do so.