Sample Essay on Impacts of Science and Technology on Society

Impacts of Science and Technology on Society


Although modern science is of comparatively latest origin, having originated with Galileo approximately 4 centuries ago, it has made incredibly fast advancement and entirely changed outwardly the way human beings live. It is supposed that the life of human beings has transformed more in the last century compared to how they lived in thousands of years before, due to the technological know-how amassed over the last four hundred years, and its utilization in the form of science. Therefore, the impact of technology and science on society is apparent; development in medicine and surgery, agriculture, telecommunications, infrastructure, to mention a few, remains part of our everyday livelihood. Scientific and technological advances have had a significant impact on society, and their impact is rising.         By considerably transforming our ways of communication, how human beings work, their housing, garments, modes of transport, and, without a doubt, even the span and quality of life, science has brought changes in the ethical ideals and basic doctrines of humankind. Science has as well transformed the way humankind lives and what they believe. Science and technology have presented man with the opportunity to pursue societal issues, for instance, ethics, aesthetics, learning, and integrity, to build more and to advance human conditions. However, it has as well placed human beings in an exclusive position of destroying themselves.

Science denotes the pursuit of truth concerning nature. The objective of science is not to generate technology, but to appreciate the way nature operates and realize the incredible order and intelligence working within us. The technologist applies the information, which the scientist finds, and applies it to build rifles, vehicles, or produce energy. The improvement of science and technology is certainly the greatest structured inventive action of humanity today. The mortal world around us today and how society operates in the present day are explicit expressions of these developments (Callon & Rabeharisoa, 2006).

The basis of science rests in the development of the human mind, as well as the inherent sense of inquisitiveness in mankind to discover, identify, and comprehend the nature of the world. From its original days, science has been rooted in society. There has been an unremitting education process in society altogether, anchored in everyday experiences, and this developed into the field of knowledge from which applications and apprehension have developed.

Positive Impacts of Science and Technology

Man is a normal human being with the ability to reason, as stated by Aristotle. Man cannot separate the irresolvable connection between science and society. Contemporary communities signify urbanization; they apply fast transportation and communication devices, the conservation and channeling of food, sufficient hygiene, and the utilization of mechanical energy. When disasters destroy a major town in a country, community life is hampered; infrastructure, food circulation, production of goods, specialized services, and energy supply all become inaccessible. By technological application, science has developed into a significant foundation for civilization. Science can be a monster that can turn on its architect in times of trouble and doubt. Science is the therapy to an individual’s sickness and the torchbearer during the enormous struggle. Through the evolution of machines, science offers relief from tiresome physical and casual labor. The current technology can lengthen the life span in numerous ways (Goodrum & Haas, 2004). Science smashes constrains of fallacy and the present market site for technological merchandises.

The development of technology made the world a global village regulated by normal and friendly persons. Conversely, science through technological advancement resulted in the division of labor, social control of employees in industries, congestion of the towns, and concentration of economic supremacy. These aspects can denote the control of man-by-man and a denial of independence on the controlled man. On a wider scale, scientific and technological advancement implies that man has dominance over progressively more prevailing ways of destruction. Therefore, man should choose how he/she should use these scientific and technological powers. The big question facing society pertains to the objectives that humankind wants from science and technology. The reply to the question should be based on the contributions of science and technology to society and our beliefs regarding what is good. In the field of information technology, technology has connected each human being on earth with one another. From earlier times when people developed as civilized persons, households, organized tribes, and communities, they have currently swiftly shifted to a global community. The impact of this shift on the individual human brain is yet to be realized. In physical ways, it would surely be extremely productive.

The improvement of recent biology signifies not only innovative scientific developments but also applications with far-reaching community implications. Modern biology holds immense promise in various disciplines, for instance, agriculture, medicine, energy, and industry. In the present day, food production internationally is sufficient for the current population of about 6.5 billion people. Nevertheless, in the next two decades, there will be an additional two billion people to feed. The world does not have additional significant arable land vacant. Biotechnology gives the guarantee of more production and malady-free produce. In-plant protection, genetic engineering facilitates transmission between crops of genetic materials that offer protection, which is impossible in traditional crop reproduction.

In the field of medicine, huge promises, such as immunodiagnosis and immunoprophylaxis exist because of technology. Immunodiagnosis assists the discovery of numerous maladies very early, enabling early and inexpensive treatment. The suppression of smallpox, elimination in polio, and defense against numerous babyhood illnesses are examples of the supremacy of immunoprophylaxis. In food production, developments have been employed to date on a steady basis. For instance, animal husbandry has developed from selection and mating to artificial insemination, and successful egg transplant technologies, with none of these technologies raising fears.

Negative Impacts of Science and Technology

Despite all this advancement in science and technology, the resultant progress of technology and industry, and the comforts, solaces, and influence human beings have acquired through this know-how, in no area of the planet is humankind contented, and in harmony with themselves, living without fighting. It was anticipated that the advancement of science and technology would inaugurate a period of harmony and affluence, but this notion has been proved wrong. In contrast, when we examine the level of fighting all over the world in a ten-year period, from 2000 to 2010, in each nation, the grid is rising. Thus, on one hand, science has brought superior prosperity through globalization and, alternatively, greater aggression, grief, apprehension, and more novel diseases (Stirling, 2007).

Wajcman (2010) asked the question of whether there has been mental development in any way in the past five thousand years. He wondered whether human beings have advanced in any way in wisdom, or the pursuit of truth in their conscience. Technology has produced great authority; knowledge constantly provides authority and is helpful since it enlarges our capacities. However, when people lack wisdom and affection, brotherhood, which are all derivatives of wisdom, subsequently, authority can be utilized in a hostile way towards the society. Sixty percent of all the scientific study conducted today is explicitly or implicitly intended for acquiring weapons, and are endorsed by the defense department in each country. In the very last one hundred years, over 200 million people have been wiped out by wars, which are without precedent in any prior century (Stirling, 2007).

The fast development of new science has brought about major social difficulties. Not only has technology formed deeply impacted humankind’s material means of life but also provided a similarly deep mental confusion. As affected from the transformations, it has established in man’s coherent understanding of his surroundings and his perception toward knowledge. Materials life has principally experienced the scientific knowledge growing out of engineering application of technological breakthroughs, techniques, and systems. Simultaneously, the heightened attentiveness and the understanding of nature and the progressive approach toward knowledge have critically infringed upon humankind’s spiritual faith and attitude (Pinsonneault & Kraemer, 2005). Genetic engineering has continued to elicit fear as we move from one species limits.

Therefore, does humankind deserve to possess the understanding, which science is generating? Children are not allowed to play with fire because they might set the house ablaze or burn themselves. Moreover, is not humankind in that situation, with no wisdom? There is abhorrence in our enthusiasms; we are imperfectly split up into groups — class, national, linguistic, spiritual and other groups. It is then conscientious for scientists to breed know-how, giving increased control, devoid of the knowledge to utilize it correctly. Accountability from a theosophical standpoint is a collective duty. It denotes being accountable to the entire society, all of humanity, and even the world not being only answerable for furthering scientific knowledge. The world today is living in a technical period, but the big question is the benefit human beings are deriving from the scientific era (Pinsonneault & Kraemer, 2005). Has humankind applied their scientific discoveries to be more defensive, compassionate, and calm, to create greater wealth and harmony?

The world has fought for numerous centuries, and most shockingly, there are nuclear arsenals. Wajcman (2010) stated that it is imperative that human beings watch their steps before they take them and ensure that they have an extensive visualization to those steps. Through genetic technology, the world has developed new power, but can we guarantee that this power will be used for the advantage of humankind and for the world in general? We cannot simply guarantee that. However, all the countries of the earth are expending enormous sums in building up scientific knowledge, like that is the world’s main concern. The problems facing humankind today are due to lack of understanding of life and the expressively archaic situation where we find ourselves.

Even in the fields of diplomatic applications of nuclear power, there are big fears about nuclear mistakes, harm from nuclear emission, and the problem of safe dumping of radioactive materials. Scientific advancements result in a society enjoying relaxed life and with more free time. Additionally, these identical industrial improvements could as well be propelled in an unconstructive way. Some scientific misconceptions have wiped out the material survival of their designer instead of giving them an improved life. Science is a good framework of judgment; it is rational and often comprehensible. Through cautious examination, one discovers that man’s way to continued existence rests in his capability to be a decisive judge of this intricate material world (Rauterberg, 2004). Apart from of his comparative response his choice will considerably impact the future position of science and technology.

Einstein is quoted articulating that had he recognized that his formula E = mc2, which confirmed a great reality concerning the natural world, that mass is an additional type of energy would be applied to create atomic bombs and destroy millions of people in Japan, he would in no way have performed that study or printed the outcomes (Castells, 2011). However, we cannot stop doing science because it would kill people. That would be the most primitive act in our current society. Science has been taught like a method to perform our own objective. The politicians unreasonably, absurdly, according to the notions, make decisions to go to battle, and scientists, as workers, are assisting them do anything they want; anything their government desires. Science is no more the architect of society, and learners are studying the knowledge and principles of science rather than assimilating its spirit.


Science and Technology will persist to progress quickly as we approach into the next century. What is imperative is to make sure that these improvements help the society altogether. Narrow-minded deliberations of narrow profitable interests, chauvinism, fundamentalist religious features, and rigid ideological splits have to surrender to the primary morals of human self-respect and human rights, and peace with nature: value structures that are exterior to the sphere of science but have to direct its functions.


Callon, M., & Rabeharisoa, V. (2006). Research “in the wild” and the shaping of new social identities. Technology in society, 25(2), 193-204.

Castells, M. (2011). The rise of the network society: The information age: Economy, society, and culture. John Wiley & Sons.

Goodrum, P. M., & Haas, C. T. (2004). Long-term impact of equipment technology on labor productivity in the US construction industry at the activity level. Journal of construction engineering and management, 130(1), 124-133.

Pinsonneault, A., & Kraemer, K. L. (2005). The impact of information technology on middle managers. Mis Quarterly, 271-292.

Rauterberg, M. (2004). Positive effects of entertainment technology on human behaviour. In Building the Information Society (pp. 51-58). New York: Springer.

Stirling, A. (2007). A general framework for analysing diversity in science, technology and society. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 4(15), 707-719.

Wajcman, J. (2010). Feminist theories of technology. Cambridge journal of economics, 34(1), 143-152