Sample Essay on Management and Leadership Challenges and Solutions


Organizations are in a persistent quest of transforming their directors into leaders, and workers into followers. A director normally works from a power platform, while a leader establishes a platform of influence for the purpose of encouraging and motivating his/her team (Vera & Crossan, 2004, p. 230). To improve the poor performance of a team of 40 staff working on a HIV project in a developing country, the organization responsible for the project needs to balance the managerial abilities and leadership development. A single leader in isolation cannot lead a team to success. The overall management group working collaboratively is significant to find the way in the gradually more complex as well as difficult times and positively impact the end result. On the contrary, an ineffective team can affect morale, staff confidence as well as consume valuable organizational resources (Bonner, 2010, p. 1). This paper, therefore, discusses about the key leadership and management challenges and solutions required to improve the poor performance of a team of 40 staff working on a HIV project in a developing country.

The Key Leadership and Management Challenges

Headship and management are significant for the deliverance of good HIV health care services. Even though the two are comparable in some respects, they may include various types of viewpoint, proficiencies, and behaviors. Excellent managers should always make every effort to have good leadership qualities and effective leaders require management proficiencies to be efficient. Effective leadership mainly concerns leading by example. A manager is one who simply operates according to the job description (Gentry et al, 2013, p. 3). A leader is one who encourages a group to be imaginative and productive. Leadership is among the qualities that are easy to distinguish and describe. Undoubtedly, one significant rationale for this is that in most cases, the nature of management normally vary significantly in accordance with the requirements of the particular situation or context in which it is occurring (Rosenbaum, 2003, p. 110).There are numerous leadership and management challenges that might result in poor performance of a team of 40 staff working on a HIV project in a developing county. There are a number of leadership and management factors that influence this staff’s  poor performance (Dieleman & Harnmeijer, 2006). Unavailability of the big picture viewpoint is a major leadership and management challenge that can affect a team’s performance. Managers identify their utmost challenges with senior leadership teams as building team members with a holistic organizational perspective instead of a narrower operational perspective. Particularly, they identify the requirements for all team members to move without difficulty from advocating the requirements of their projects or operational area to find solutions or establish strategies that best serve the organization in general.

Lack of a common direction, priorities, objectives as well as value is another leadership and management challenge that can influence poor performance of the HIV health workers as clear and common shared strategic direction, priorities, objectives and values are the key to establishing an effective and high functioning Health workers’ team. A poor performance is also normally accepted when individuals are not held liable. Team members who lack suitable abilities and skills, or those with negative attitudes usually badly affect the performance of the whole team in areas like self-esteem, trust, conflict, and most apparently effectiveness. Leaders and groups that put up with an under performer or do not hold all the group affiliates to a constantly high standard are usually rated as ineffective. Unproductive communication as well as group meeting is another ordinary leadership and management challenge (Dent & Holton, 2008, p.4). The creation of an effective communication process is a self–explained challenge that is faced by teams. Unproductive leadership team meetings and insufficient time of brainstorming or discussing the strategic issues is a very common team challenge (Dieleman & Harnmeijer, 2006). The key determinants of the performance of HIV project team members are linked to the factors that are associated with the leadership and management practices, including resource allocation, planning and employment of additional staff, the existing regulatory framework, communication as well as decision making procedures and accountability mechanisms. These can be initiated by policy makers and planners within the health care division together with other responsible individuals at the national level.

Poor performance of a team handling a HIV project is normally a result of the health staff being insufficient in numbers or failing to provide care based on standard and failure of being responsive to the requirements of the community as well as the patients. The numerous factors that influence staff retention as well as mobility includes individual and daily life related factors, such as living circumstances, work associated factors, factors associated with preparation for work at the times of pre-service education, factors linked to health system like human resources policy as well as planning and job fulfillment, affected by health facility factors including financial considerations, job terms, management capabilities and styles and safety at the workplace. There are a number of reasons why the HIV project team members in a developing country leave their jobs, and financial grounds are normally not the only reasons. Factors are also expected to be interconnected and their influence on HIV project team members depends on the nature of leadership and management (Dieleman & Harnmeijer, 2006, p. 2). Deficiencies of trained HIV staff represent a disaster of epidemic proportions in the developing countries. In a number of the poorest states, health systems are at risk of collapsing as a result of lack of HIV health staff to offer services. Years of under investment in leadership and management development, together with restrictive employment policies as well as scrappy, prolonged, and ineffective leadership and management systems have lead to health workers being underpaid, incompetent to offer new health services, and demoralized and incapable of meeting demands for even the basic health services (Schofield, 2008, p. 10).

HIV care delivery and patient status keep changing, and managers need to continue learning new capabilities and proficiencies to keep up. An essential portion of management comprises expertise and competencies like motivation of the team members, communication, and negotiation with stakeholders and the maintenances of particular attitudes and conducts that maximizes a team’s discipline and performance. Mangers and leaders face the challenge of getting to understand the basic technical aspects of the service offered (Drucker, 2007). Managers and leaders face the challenge of how to establish and promote a situation in which the teams they head are constantly learning. This is because of the inability to clearly and regularly identify some of the challenges faced by the service, and the proficiency and knowledge that the groups require to tackle these challenges (Kouzes & Posner, 2006).

Leadership and Management Solutions Required to Improve the Poor Performance

The management of a team performance is a key part of effective leadership. According to a number of studies, managers who take on effectual performance management strategies generate astonishing outcomes. Headship and administration are essential for the success of a team and the deliverance of good HIV health services. Leaders should always have a vision of what can be attained and share this with the team and develop strategies for realizing the vision (Kouzes & Posner, 2006).  To improve the performance of the HIV project team members, the responsible leaders should motivate the team members and be able to negotiate for resources and other support to attain their goal. They should be able to make sure that the existing resources are well planned and applied for the purpose of producing the best outcomes. Some of the conditions that are significant for the creation of effective management include, selection of managers and team members on merits, understanding of the duties and responsibilities and the purpose of the HIV service being delivered, and respect for managers by the other team members. HIV care delivery in the developing countries keeps on varying and administrators have to continuously learn novel capabilities and skills in order to carry on. An essential portion of management comprises skills and proficiency, such as the motivation of staff, communication, and negotiation with stakeholders and maintenance of particular attitudes and conducts that maximizes team discipline and performance (Johnson et al 2012, p. 555). Administrators should also be aware of the key technical aspects of the services offered. For most of these competencies, educational courses, while effectual are not adequate for the provision of all the required skills, getting to understand what motivates the team members is a challenge that the top leaders should address. Motivation affects numerous aspects a team’s performance. For example, attracting and retaining competent team members, work life balance, opinions about the leaders as well as the line managers. Time spent getting to understand the significant motivators is normally time well spent (Pulakos et al, 2012, p. 23)

The most effective leadership teams comprise of team members who have a big picture perceptive of an organization as well as a wide leadership outlook that is concerned with more than their own project work and resources. Team affiliates of these successful teams normally operate across boundaries, beyond their individual “silos” and with other associates across the organization. The inability of seeing the “big picture” can affect the HIV project team’s capacity of solving crisis or making decisions and in most cases necessitates the managers to drawn in. For HIV project team to be effective and healthy, it requires well stated purpose and direction, and not just an understanding of what should be done within the short term, but also an understanding of the key focus of the group. Common goals and aims normally results in commitments as well as accountability. Members of successful groups usually share a sense of joint idea (Gilson & Daire, 2011). They are usually clear concerning the team’s roles and its significance to the success of the organization they belong. They are able to illustrate what the team is intending to achieve and have established mutually agreed upon objectives that evidently relate to the vision of the team. Approaches for attaining their goals are normally clear. An organization with clearly stated mission, a planned direction with quantifiable and realistic objectives, and action plans that plainly explain who is in charge for what roles report higher overall team usefulness. Additionally, an organization that plainly define and hold individuals liable to particular values or conduct also indicate higher degree of team performance (Zaccaro, Rittman & Marks, 2001, p. 452).

There are numerous reasons that individuals who do not have suitable skills and competencies end up on a higher leadership team. The manager could have taken on a long-lasting team member with poor proficiencies. The team member could be capable during the time that the institution was undersize but it has outgrown the teams’ capabilities. A team member who is not ready to face the challenges of a higher management position or the difficulty and size of an institution they should be managing can have a devastating effect on the overall team’s performance. Bringing the abilities of all the HIV project team members into balance with the existing realities and future aspirations is a challenging task for a leader, however experienced. This should be done for the benefit of the team as well as the organization (Franken, Edwards & Lambert, 2009, p.30). The key communication challenge faced by leadership teams is normally what, how as well as the quantity of information to share within the confines of the group itself. Another key communication issue concerns the usefulness or regularly scheduled group meetings. Such meetings are at times affected by overly rigid agenda or procedures that end up having the team members giving merely an update or report on their operational areas. These kinds of meetings rarely permit for a discussion of more strategic issues, brainstorming, or even problem solving activities. Conversely, completely unorganized meetings can lead to lack of focus, wasted time as well as having one member of the team dominating the discussion to the frustration of all who are in attendance (Franken, Edwards & Lambert, 2009; Orosz, 2007).

Variations in Personality and behavioral styles could be a big leadership and management challenge to the HIV project team when it comes to addressing issues about conflict, decision making, and the pace of transformation or even problem solving styles. However, these variations in perspectives can also result in better decision and greater innovation. The result of the diversity of styles on a group is normally more interpersonal conflict. However, groups that lack diversity of perspectives are usually more prone to a state referred to as “groupthink” which is normally characterized by a norm for consensus which implies the group lacks realistic appraisal of alternatives (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt, 2006, p.366). To deal with the issue of insufficiency of the health staff numbers at the health system level, particular approaches within the health sector reforms can be useful, including transformations in compensation systems, decentralization, society participation as well as accountability devices. Innervations to enhance productivity, responsiveness, and competences of the team members can also address the life style of the health staff in the developing countries or the necessities of particular groups including the female health staff members or staff members in particular groups.  As the factors that influence the performance of the HIV project team members are closely related to each other, interventions should be comprehensive and versatile, and should take place concurrently at various levels of the HIV health system (Kouzes & Posner, 2012, p. 56).

To enhance the performance of the HIV project team members, the managers of the team should be able to identify their specific tasks and functions. No matter the kind of services offered by the team, the managers should be able to devise and implement strategies, come up with plans and budgets, look for resources, put into practice, supervise, and evaluate the plans and also some up with new plans (Fisher, 2014; Stacey, 2012). The managers should take the responsibility of delegating tasks to the team members and offer support as well as coach them to achieve the desired outcomes. They should be able to utilize team meetings as well as other forms of communication to share with the team the appropriate messages concerning what is to be achieved, and how to achieve the set goals.  One of the key management tasks involves reviewing the essential information and data that concerns service delivery and utilizing this kind of data to make decisions concerning how services can be transformed and enhanced (Bennis & Thomas, 2002, p. 45). The manager of the HIV project team should take the responsibility of handling the funding offered for the service, and making sure that they are utilized effectively to generate the utmost probable benefits for the community and the team members. Maintaining a firm focus on the key goal is a chief responsibility of the administrator. Management mainly involves the development of competent individuals with high potential and conflict resolution while preserving ethics as well a discipline.






In order for a team to be successful and realize the team’s goals and objectives, the top management of organization under which the team operates should understand that there should be   a balance between leadership as well as the management. As discussed above, among the leadership and management challenges that might result in poor performance of a team of 40 staff working on a HIV project in a developing county include; Lack of a big picture perspective where managers identify their utmost challenges with senior leadership teams as building team members with a holistic organizational perspective instead of a narrower operational perspective. Lack of a common direction, priorities, and objective is also another challenge where team members are not held liable.  Poor performance may also be as a result of the health staff being insufficient in numbers or failing to provide care based on standard and failure of being responsive to the requirements of the community as well as the patients. Headship and management are essential for the success of a team and the deliverance of good HIV health services. To deal with these leadership and management challenges, leaders and managers should have a clear vision of what can be attained and share this with the team and develop strategies for realizing the vision. The team managers need to identify and be aware of their specific chores and functions in leading the team to achieve the stated goals. The Leader of the HIV project team should have a clear visualization of what can be attained and share this with the team and develop plan for success. To improve the performance of the HIV project team members, the responsible leader should motivate the team members and be able to negotiate for resources and other support to attain their goal. It is significant to maintain a firm focus on the key objectives of the team and plan well to achieve them.



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