1.1 Compare and contrast 3 different management styles that are used in a hospitality organization
Management refers to the process of attaining an organizational goals and objective through effective use of available resources. Through management, an organization is in a well position to carry out its operations now and in the future. The process of management is charged with managers who are crucial in ensuring that all managerial decisions a company undertakes are applied. An organizations survival entirely depends on the decisions that managers make. Management process five main involves activities.
Planning which ensures that an organization identifies clearly its goals and objectives and set ways in which ensures that they are achieved. Organization is another management function, which controls the structure of an organization. Different employees within an organization are tasked with specific responsibilities according to their qualifications. Staffing involves efficient recruiting of the right employees in an organization for specified responsibilities. Controlling functions of managers take into account the smooth operation of an organization generally by setting standards, monitoring employer’s performance and addressing any issues arising within an organization performance. Coordinating management function controls all the functions of an organization to ensure they work together for attainment of a specific goal.
In autocratic leadership style, managers or leaders are the sole decision makers in an organization in terms of supervision and controlling the activities of an organization. It is a single communication way that involves giving orders and directions. This style of leadership is important in a hospitality industry especially in cases when there is a need for quick decision making. This will be ideal to tackle an urgent issue at hand. Additionally, the style may also be applicable in the hospitality industry organization where there are low skilled employees that do not have much needed capacity to take part in making organizational decisions.
Paternalistic Leadership style
In this type of leadership, organizational leaders often give a more consideration to the needs and views of their employees. From the root of its word pater, which means father in Latin, it indicates that managers’ main concentration focuses on workers happiness. Employee and employer consultation and exchange of opinions and feedbacks mainly characterize this leadership style. The manager at the end will however make the final decision that will be benefiting to the employee. This leadership style is effective in hospitality industry because it is motivating to employees. They will feel more appreciated and concerned for thereby motivating them to work harder to achieve the set goals. However, this style may be slow down the process of decision making due to its expansive consultative nature that is time consuming.
Democratic Leadership Style
This is a delegated form of managerial style where employees within organizations are part of the decision makers. It is a two way communication where the employee’s suggestions are attained democratically. This is achieved when a decision is arrived at following a support of ideas from the majority of the workers. In a hospitality industry, this is important especially with regards to making decisions involving complex situations. Workers are motivated too to work best for the organization as they feel part of the decision making team. This type of leadership may be dangerous in the organizations too since workers may use their numeric strengths at the expense of professionalism in decision making thereby costing an industry.
1.2. Discuss the leadership characteristics of a manager in hospitality organization that he should possess to conduct his roles successfully.
As we have discussed earlier, leadership gives the whole direction an organization takes. Given the sophisticated nature of hotel industry, leaders must very sensitive since the industry is quite demanding and deal with individual services and needs. Leaders in this industry must have the following characteristics in order to ensure the success of the industry.
Leadership by active participation
Direct participation of a leader in the hotel industry will see a uniform flow of operations in line with its objectives and goals. This attitude will empower employees to work even more efficiently due to the consistency factor an organization takes in. Leaders are able to be in touch with execution process that will give them immediate information that will help in decision making instantly and applicably. The information from the ground to leaders is also crucial when making allocation of resources decisions by the leaders. The ground information also empowers the leaders with more knowledge to add on their authority they have for an effective leadership (Ford and Heaton 2001, p.39).
Ability to appreciate Organizations Workforce
Employees are the valuable assets of any organization and must always be acknowledged. All leaders must keep in mind this fact since without employees all management plans are void. Each and every aspect of an organization requires human manpower and knowledge to be executed. Leaders should also provide a good working environment for its employees all the time. It is important for leaders to keep in mind those workers loyalty and dedication to an organization and in this case the hospitality industry will entirely depend on how well they are taken care of by the same organization (Bansal, Mendelson and Sharma 2001, p.62). When an employee is well treated to an organization, their motivation to work is increased thereby ensuring that services they offer will satisfy all the consumers which is important to the industry (Pizam 2005, p. 309).
Attending to Clients needs
One of the most important ability of any organization or business entity is to satisfy customer’s needs. For a hospitality industry, this is quite crucial. Leaders must be able to come up with ways that will provide services to clients to satisfy both their seen and unseen needs. This will leave them will a permanent mark in their minds forever. In order to ensure that customers get this satisfaction, an organization will need exemplary leaders who will ensure that workers are made to understand the importance of this factor. He/she must be a role model to this in order to serve as an example to others (Ford and Heaton 2001, p.42).
Good communication skills
Communication is a core requirement in any business. For hospitality industry, communication is the core factor since this is a social setting industry and its success is built upon good relations established through communication. Communication in the first place is a marketing tool for the industry and any leader who does not have these skills is prone to failure. Social sites used in marketing like blogs use good communication to attract customers (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010, p.67). Communication also ensures good relations in an organization through expression of interests and needs. Communication for instance in the tourism industry is all that is needed for a customer to book and get all that is wanted in whatever location he is located (Carroll & Siguaw 2003,p.40).
Able to undertake corporate social responsibility
Leaders must also be able to take care of other consumer’s needs other than concentrating on profits alone. The hospitality industry leaders must demonstrate the ability to responds to issues affecting the community that is within the business settings. The most core responsibility will include environmental conservation. This is for instance quite important for a tourism industry since its services are mostly linked with the natural environment ecosystem (Stipanuk 2001 p.64).Leaders must always keep this point clears in their management roles.
1.3. Evaluate the communication process within the organization
Communication process involves exchange of information and ideas among the different individuals within an organization. Proper communication process within a tourism industry will ensure success of the organizational services offer. In the organization service production, it mandatory for leaders and managers to ensure there is a constant and efficient communication between employees and customers using reliable means of communication. Managers too should ensure an efficient way of communication that goes to the employees for betters service delivery and the outside world too.
For a communication process to be complete within a hospitality tourism industry, there must be a sender, channel, and receiver of information. These components of communication must be in place for effective communication process a task mandated to the managers. To ensure that this is effective, managers have to incorporate tools like modern technology and well established delivery line for the message to reach out to all its intended recipients in time to avoid miscommunication.
Good communication between the employees and managers boosts the morale of workers since they can directly talk about their concerns to the managers. This will create a god work relationship in the organization especially in cases where there is a good performance. Good communication in the tourism industry will also include a platform of system operation where both the employees and cutovers (Miller 2012, p. 205) easily understand complex information.
Communication within the industry and any other organization is mostly vertical, that is it comes from the managers to employees (Clampitt 2010, p. 209), who are meant to be the receivers. The organization has to ensure that the workers receive the information in good faith in order for it to be executed within the intended time frame and avoid any conflicts. This will require that the organization communicate its message to the most efficient channel easily accessed and operated by the employees. The organization must to this effect ensure that all the employees get training and knowledge about any modern developments in the communication advancement both within and outside the organization what will have a direct influence to the industry.
Any factor that will hinder information relay to the employees and customers must as well be done away with (Clampitt, 2010, p. 206). For communication to be complete, an action must be taken. If it was an order from the manager to employees than it should end with the worker executing it. In cases of marketing, the communication should be able to make the clients take action like buying their services.
Communication is the most important tool in the effective service delivery within a tourism and hospitality industry. This calls for all the managers in the industry to ensure there is a clear communication strategy both internally and externally for the organization. This will be a contributing factor in all its services.
1.4 Analyze the organizational culture and change in a selected business organization
Organizational culture is the common conduct of employees within a given organization. It is the collective values, beliefs, and principles among employees of a given organization directly related to the history of the organization (Needle 2004). An Organizational culture could be its goals, values, beliefs strategy among others shared beliefs. According to Ravasi and Schultz (2006), it is shared assumptions that direct occurrences within a given organization and also providing a meaning for a given occurrence within the organization (Ravasi and Schultz 2006, p.436). Organization culture is also very critical since it affects how the employees identify themselves with a given organization. Organization culture is therefore the pattern beliefs among members of a given organization that are generational or are inherited by the new members of a given organization. Culture consists of mainly values and practices.
For the hospitality industry to embrace change in its culture, there are two main factors that ought to be kept in mind. In the first place, changing the practices must go along with changing values. Leaders in the organization should come up with new programs and policies and also in effect create new beliefs about them. Coming up with new policies without new beliefs would not work efficiently. The leaders too should work on changing the beliefs of workers especially with regards to the changing world so as to achieve a well established cultural change.
Creating a change within a tourism organization against its dominant culture requires managers to assist workers in unlearning the holding beliefs or current beliefs. They should work to it and see that there is sufficient information and data evidence to demonstrate the dangers of current beliefs. Additionally, leaders must also be able to come up with ways in which they will contain the anxiety created in adoption of the change created. Any new aspect in the industry will cause quite a lot of anxiety due to the fear of the unknown. The end result of this could result to fear as the employees will shy off from looking incompetent. To deal with this, training programs should be sufficiently established to address the situation.
Learning of the new values is also crucial at this point. It will take some time as the works will have to put in practice the new beliefs and see their success, which will be integrated with time. Adoption of change within the organization will require considerably a number of preparations in order for it to be effective. These will include the leadership commitment, training and resource allocations.
1.5 How could a manager in an organization lead and motivate the team to achieve an agreed goal or objective.
An organization is goal can only be achieved through cooperation between both the management and employees. There has to be a clear structure in order to ensure this link between them is achieved. For an organization success, the workers have to be well motivated and inspired through the following ways
Helping the employees.
This is one area that will motivate organizations employees. For instance, if the organization adopts a new strategy, it is important that all the employees are well trained and equipped with knowledge on how to adopt it. A senior member of the management team should willingly do this. Always encourage them in embracing the new aspect created and will increase employee morale, as they will feel important and recognized. At the end, not only will he be skillful but also the communication pattern within the organization will have been enhanced.
Recognizing their results
Another way of motivating the employees is by recognizing their positive results. A sincere appreciation to a good work done by an employee is a great motivator. The worker will feel that his achievement has been highly regarded and this will prompt him to maintain this status quo, which will have a direct positive impact on the organizational goals.
Nurturing the discovered potential
Another important factor in motivation employees to work better is by nurturing the discovered potential among employees. For a good manager, it is possible that through the work in a given organization that one can identify something special among the workers. If so, it should be encouraged and even nurtured further. We get to find that different individuals have different abilities to do some things and when such potentials are recognized especially in an organizational setting, they do yield good results and great motivation.
Employees too could be encouraged and motivated by managers that understand their needs. In as much as organizational workers are employees, managers should also keep in mind that they are human beings with special needs. This is aimed to cement the relationship between the firm and employees so that they are motivated to provide the best for the organization. This can be done by pointing out the issues they have with managers help they address the problems.
1.6 Justify managerial decision made to support achievement of agreed goals and objectives and recommendations for improvements.
Organizations managers often area tasked with coming up with the best decision making. This process is very vital since it affects the organizations health and affects the employees. The most important aspect of decision making process by managers is getting the employees on board during the process of making decisions. This technique assists in cementing the bond between the employees and the organization and ensures a strong team that work out together for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. With employees being part of decision making process, there is an instilled sense of responsibilities among them towards achieving a common goal of the organization. There are several important aspects gained by this method of managerial decision making.
In the first place, the trust between the employees and managers is greatly built. Keeping the employees in the light about organizations decisions by making them part of the process ensures the transparency of the whole process and confidence built in executing the decisions too. The employees thoughts in decision making is vital for building confidence and trust in the decisions hence healthy for its intended goal. Having different minds in the decision process making too provide a variety of solutions and ideas on how to ensure that organizations goals are achieved in the best possible way.
In as much as employees are involved as being part of decision making process, some of the decisions are to be made by the management only. Some of the decisions are very confidential to the organization and have a severe effect to the organizations in cases where they are mishandled and for instance leaked out. With such, the management should not involve employees. In addition, some decisions that involve crucial information of the organizing like financial data should not be disclosed to everyone. This information is privy to some specific managers that in cases of having it to all employees could be harmful to the organization.
Bansal, H. S., Mendelson, M. B. and Sharma, B., 2001. “The impact of internal marketing activities on external marketing outcomes.” Journal of quality management. 61-76.
Carroll, B and Siguaw, J., 2003. “The evolution of electronic distribution: effects on hotels and intermediaries.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 38-50.
Clampitt, P. G., 2010. Communicating for managerial effectiveness: Problems, strategies, solutions. Los Angeles: Sage.
Ford,R. C. and Heaton, C. P., 200. “Lessons from hospitality that can serve anyone.” Organizational dynamics, pp.30-47.
Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein, M., 2010. “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media.”Business horizons. (53) 59-68.
Miller, K., 2012. Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Needle, D., 2004. Business in Context: An Introduction to Business and Its Environment.4th edition published by Thomson Learning.
Pizam, A., 2005. “What happens to hospitality enterprises when minimum wages are continuously raised. Hospitality management. 309-310.
Ravasi, D., Schultz, M. 2006. “Responding to organizational identity threats: Exploring the role of organizational culture”. Academy of Management Journal49 (3): 433–458.
Stipanuk, D. M., 2001. “Energy management in 2001 and beyond: operational options that reduce use and cost.”Cornell Hotel and University administration quarterly. 57-70.