Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize is best described as an international prize awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. This is done in accordance to guidelines highlighted in Alfred Nobel’s Will. It is one among the 5 Nobel Prizes created by Alfred Nobel, a Swedish armaments manufacturer and inventor.
Since 1901, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded every year to those who have performed the best or most work for reduction or abolition of standing armies, for promoting and holding peace congresses and fraternity between nations.
As per Nobel’s will, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize is chosen by Norwegian Nobel Committee which is compromised of 5 members appointed by Norway parliament. Since 1990, this prize is awarded on 10th December every year in Oslo City. Formally1947-89, the Prize was awarded in University of Oslo Faculty of Law Atrium, the Parliament (1901-1904) and Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905-1946).
Alfred Nobel died in 1896 and to date there is no explanation as to why he included peace in the prize category. He was a chemical engineer for this reason the physics and chemistry categories were obvious choices but not the peace category.
However, according to the Nobel Committee, his friendship with a peace activist, Bertha von Suttner who later won the prize might have influenced his decision to include peace in the list. Nobel scholars though argue that it was his way of compensating for developing forces that were destructive.
Selection and nomination
Every year people who are qualified are invited by the Nobel Committee to submit their nominations for the prize. The Nobel Foundation statute specifies categories for individuals eligible to make nominations and they include:
- National assembly’s members, governments and Inter-Parliamentary Union members.
- Institut de Droit International members
- Norwegian Nobel Institute former permanent advisors
- Past and present Norwegian Nobel Committee members
- Professors of social sciences, history, theology, law and philosophy in universities, international affair institutes, peace research directors and university presidents.
- Members of ICC at The Hague and Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Nominations are supposed to be presented at the start of February of every award year. Nominations which are made by Nobel committee members are submitted to the date when they hold the meeting after the deadline.
205 nominations were made in 2009, 237 in 2010 and 241 in 2011. The statues of the Foundation do not permit divulgence of information about investigations, nominations or considerations used toward the prize made public for a maximum 50 years after awarding of the prize. One hundred and twenty six laureates have been awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize 94 times between 1901 and 2013. This includes 25 organizations and 101 individuals. Note that the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for refugees have received the prize 2 times as such there are twenty two individual organizations that have been awarded the prize.
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