Psychoanalysis as a theory is centered on the thinking and behaviors of human beings. The theory is intensive in the handling of mentally retarded patients who do not respond to liberations and personal development .The patients are cared for as they receive appropriate medication which at least will be of great value to them. If left alone without being guarded, given food and medication, some of the patients in critical conditions can even kill themselves or kill their fellow ones. (Freud, Sigmund)This calls for keenness and patience of those looking after this people. Thus in the discussion below, the theory is based on how mentally ill patients need to be cared for and how one should be able to understand them in that, they feel warm and of value to the society at a large.
The theory advocates for the creation of a good relationship with mentally ill people. For instance, this theory looks into establishing a good relationship with these people. These people will therefore have a feeling of being loved. This allows them to open up their mind and can share what affects them internally. They freely speaks and can even shout out loudly. By this some information can be obtained that had been kept unaware. For some of these patients they require speaking with them face by face in order for them to disclose their hidden information. Some of the patients are just observed while asleep and the information can be obtained from their dreams. The psychoanalyst obtains the information from the patient which is analyzed and meaningful interpretation be obtained then subjected to scrutiny to identify causes of the effects and associated problems. They are capable of sharing this through various forms like experiences, thoughts, facial reactions, dreams, sensations and images.
Joint agreement between the psychoanalyst and the mentally ill. They agree on the frequency of carrying out the sessions and even the amount of time that they need to carry out the analysis. The amount fee to be paid to the analyst is negotiated and then a final agreement is arrived at. The negotiations are important to make these process of analysis to be effective and thus be sustainable. The analysis can be short term or long term depending on the intended analysis to be carried out at the patient.
There are various reasons for seeking the psychoanalysis. Some seek the services of the analyst to increase the understanding about self, fulfilling their potential and even personal understanding .others when stuck with emotions of distress can be made to feel secure and have the sense of satisfaction. This prevents the patients seeking these services to be free from difficult situations that may cause endurance and tend to make them forget some bitter experiences.
Psychoanalysts are trained professional in areas of health. They are licensed to handle cases with mental people with mental impairment and discomfort. They are taught about psychology in order to understand the human mental processes and behavior in order to handle these behaviors. The analysts undergo a rigorous training programme to provide experience and understanding on how to conduct the supervision.
The theory and methods of psychoanalysis was proposed by Sigmund Freud. His scholarly work included the study of the unconscious mind and its processes in the day to day activities of humans and their emotional constraints. He stated the areas of study that should be included in the study .They are among others personal therapy and also careful observation of the human mind. The psychological processes are important in that they can enable one to understand aspects like child development and even in addressing some social effects like violence and child abuse.
The mental functioning of an individual. Repression being considered as one of the defense mechanism it can act as a cause of anxiety to an individual. The thoughts of repression can be exposed here the individual is subjected into deep sleep in which they are able to utter their subconscious mind which can be studied to know the exact feelings. The repression can thus lead to slowing down or facilitating the mental actions which can lead to negative or positive effects to an individual.
Careful analysis of childhood experiences. When we talk of this we are referring to the experiences that the children undergo in their early age are the ones that are responsible for shaping them into their current actions. This is important to bring up children by exposing them to desirable experiences in order for them to have their personality appropriately adjusted in order to have self-understanding and fully realization of their potentials.
The school careers in psychoanalysis. In this case it is needed that the school going students be provided with proper help in understanding on how to handle economic, social and emotional issues. This is done through giving out chance to students in order to explain themselves then be able to correct their errors in thinking. This can be important in fostering moral strengthening and growth among the children. This analysis is therefore important and so there is need for the government also to intervene and construct institutions to provide the necessary knowledge to enable children be nurtured and be brought up while they are all round in the aspects of life. This will create an environment where decision making will take Centre stage and thus make problem solving be easier.
The childhood experiences forms one’s personal development and not his inborn traits. When one is young there are a lot events that they undergo which forms the basis for the development of the mind. A person’s personality is also determined by these experiences and not by the inborn traits. Careful and amusing experiences need to be imparted therefore to these children in order for them to have a well-adjusted personality. This therefore even affects the children intelligence and thus promoting growth of brilliant children.
Proper and skilled guidance is provided to the individual. For instance, individuals should be appropriately be directed in order to bring what is in their unconscious mind and bringing it to the conscious mind. In doing so therapeutic attention is sought to change the situation for the better. Much of the unspoken words and also the repressed thoughts are stored in the unconscious mind. When in this state they are very harmful and indeed can cause negative effects in the health of an individual. They should be well liberated from the unconscious mind and then let to be observed and carefully handled to ensure proper adjustments are reached.
Conflicts in the mind between the conscious and the unconscious mind. Some information can be repressed to result in the formation of emotional or mental uncomfortness like anxiety, depression and some neurotic traits like paralysis. People should be subject to expressing their feelings as this will prevent suppression of information to the unconscious mind. Their personality thus will be well adjusted and have a sober mind by having self-understanding.
The unconscious part of the mind of a person is unaware. It exposes the real feelings of an individual through emotions, thoughts and feelings. The information from this part of the mind is obtained by various ways for it to be analyzed carefully for interpretation to be made. The psychoanalytic techniques are like association by the patient, analyzing the dream and even hypnosis. Dreams are very important for the analysis of the brain as one is able to reveal what is in his mind. The information revealed in dreams can be remembered when a person wakes up and the other can be forgotten.Analysing these dreams can enable the analyst to manifest on the causes of the disorders that may be hidden in one’s personality and the complexes. (Stern and Daniel). The psychoanalyst is able to draw information from ones mind that was either hidden or not easily accessible.
The ego provides defense mechanism. The balancing of the id, reality and superego are the aspects that provides a state of healthy of the conscious part of the mind of an individual. It thus responds to protect a person from any stress inducing act and anxiety by changing the reality. This makes an individual to thus maintain a state of balance in the mind and respond to the prevailing situation to reduce the effects of stressors. The various ways of providing the defense mechanism ranges from repression, projection, rationalization and even regression.
Psychoanalysis can be used as a means of interpreting the meaning of a literary text.Anaysing a text can enable one to obtain the deeper meaning of ones literary text, hence you should be able to obtain the writers intentions and motives. The choice of characters and the actions they represent are carefully analyzed and a meaningful information be drawn by the reader. In this clarity and comprehension of the text can be obtained.
The various governments have made a move in support of the psychoanalysis. They have built rehabilitation centers where those that are mentally retarded are taken and careful attention given to them to reverse their situation and thus be turned into normal. This has helped many abnormal cases and thus the psychoanalytic methods are applicable in a very great deal in the present day life. The governments have also started awareness campaigns to ensure that these who are mentally ill are taken to these institutions for their disorders and imperfections to be attended to. Currently the situation is in control and many people are being assisted to overcome these mental challenges and stressors.
Psychoanalysts have established a team which is registered. Mental health is the most misunderstood area in health and this has facilitated the government to ensure that these experts are licensed to be able to provide careful service to the people affected. Careful analysis of dreams and feelings are carried out and interpretations are made which then are used to treat the people. They have been given special attention and then assisted to move out of the traumatic situation which can be found hidden and suppressed in their mind. Various scholars have proposed the introduction of this area of psychoanalysis as a field of study in which people specialize. This will assist to create expertise and knowledge that is important to be utilized and then be harmonized for the best of the country. For the recent past various countries have seen a rise in the people with m mental disorders and that is the reason for the main emphasis in this area.
Acts of mannerism and desirable behavior among people: When the children in their tender age are properly cared for they can be able to develop good behavior and acts. The experiences are learned and therefore children should be exposed to desirable experiences that can make them develop good attitudes and be positive thinkers. This will impact their morals to be properly adjusted and then have agood mannerism.( Lacan and Jacques )This will enhance bringing up of children with a morally upright culture.
Psychoanalysis can be used to treat patients with neurotic symptoms. Some mental processes are not conscious and they should be given a careful attention. There is no organic cause to this effect and therefore the people with the disorder are given the attention to reverse the condition. The conditions manifested within the neurons of an individual are not easy to be studied and therefore need for a specialized analysis which can enable one to understand the behavior and thus offer treatment that is specialized.
Oedipus complex: This is a condition condition where the boys tend to get attracted to their mothers. The analysis was done and used to provide information on this behavior .This helped to end the various theories and myths that were surrounding the explanations that were early given concerning the Oedipus complex. This analysis was accepted and adopted by most scholars because it gave a detailed explanation of even the unseen behavior and human wants.
When one speak with the psychoanalyst they are able to identify the underlying and hidden information .This entails obtaining the hidden problems and transferring them to the conscious mind. This brings about acts of emotional freedom and then individuals are capable of being in the relaxed state. Sigmund’s theory is used to identify and then promote of long lasting changes in an individual’s life. The mentally ill patient needs special attention. The theory has been adopted by many scholars who among them includes the philosophers, psychologists and even the historians.
Psychoanalysis requires an individual to have thorough sessions of the patient. The patient is supposed to attend to the analyst and then be able to communicate out loudly in an open place which enables the analyst to obtain the hidden experiences that might be causing the discomfort, disorder or stress to the individual. The patient can be made to sit in a couch and in their relaxed state they are able to narrate what is repressed in their unconscious mind. This enables the patients be relaxed and in the process be able to speak up his mind. Also by sitting next to the analyst the patient feels secure and be well gloomed and in the process they can open up their mind.
The theory is crucial in explaining the motives and drives in individuals. People are normally facilitated in doing some actions due to some varied needs in them. The level of anxiety in them enables one to have different behavior. This behaviors varies in one individual to another. This is due to the varied human needs of an individual and the environment of occupation. The motives can be positively induced or negatively induced in an individual. The desired motives are to be adopted while the undesired are just left and in this sense left. The desired motives are studied and then nurtured in order for even their transfer to be carried out in order to promote the development of rational human beings.
Children behavior can be imparted with desirable experiences. This is in order to bring up children with a more upright moral understanding and skills to enable them to be important members of society. This can be fostered by the frequent exposure of children some interactive and social environments. For example children are supposed to be left to play with other children in order to improve their cognitive and psychomotor skills. This helps to build a great personality. Children should be left to interact freely with other children and in the process they are able to learn the important aspects of life. They are thus even able to make their own decisions by choosing between what is right and that which is wrong. This is an important skill as it enables one to develop the analytical skills which are important in problem solving. Thiswill make one to gain self-confidence and intellectual capacities in handling situations that may appear undesirable.
Some mental discomfort and unrest. Information can be stored in the mind of an individual which can be the cause of some mental processes being interfered with. This has a possibility to cause stress, depression, anxiety emotional and neurotic characteristics which are not easily observed. Emotions and stress are physically obtained thus they can be able to be handled with a lot of care to yield the desired behavior. This information is supposed to be stored in the conscious part of the brain but in most of the occasions you find that it is coded in the unconscious part of the brain. This calls for the intensive care and methodologies to handle the situation because if mishandled it can cause very lethal effects to the individual.
Development of cognitive and psychomotor skills. Systematic sensitization of an individual’s mind is a very important and key aspect which enables one to develop clear and organized ideas in their minds especially when one is growing and developing. The mental arrangements of ideas is very important and should be given emphasis as it enables ne to grasp concepts and improve the intelligence. The psychoanalysts have played a major role to even study child psychology. This has enabled them to understand and even document the various stages of human development. In modern psychology child development is very important and even the various governments have established centers which are handling the children which has fostered the growth in the sector of child care. Children are able to learn more while young so keen and care attention should be given to them at the tender age. The information that is learnt at this very age is not easily forgotten.
Critical and creative thinking and even problem solving .These are very important skills in life that should be imparted to learners for them to be able to be well grounded in problem solving and tackling various situations in life. This techniques are equally important in school life situations, since learners can be able to apply them like in solving mathematical problems. The problem is broken into small parts and each part is separately handled to arrive at the final solution that may be required. Through imaginative thinking the learners can be able to become creative and in case they can be able to come up with inventions and innovations. Careful analysis and study of situations is very important in order to enable stimulation and improve quality of decisions made by the learners.psychoanaylsis is therefore a very broad field which should be handled with all manner of open mindedness being at the center.
The government and institutions of learning. These two have collaborated to promote the area of psychoanalysis.( Kohut and Heinz) Through channeling funds to this area of study people have been motivated to see the essence in the field and venture into studying it.Many scholars in this field are now found and this has promoted even professionalism in the field. Various institutions especially those of higher learning have placed more emphasis in this area and have isolated this field into a separate career. They have even designed a curriculum which is to cater for the content they learn in this area of analysis. Emphasis has also been put in this area because it is all about the human health which should be handled with care.
The mind of human beings is made up of two part, the conscious and the unconscious. The repressed emotions, thoughts and feelings are stored and processed in the unconscious mind. Much of the human beings are driven to act with the content of their unconscious mind. The information in this part of the brain sometimes is dangerous because it has been kept without being put into use. The information therefore need to be obtained and be brought to the conscious part of the brain. The various psychoanalytical methods are therefore employed and used like the association by the patient and analysis of the dream when one is asleep. People who dream and shout in the night are able to let off their unconscious thoughts. The patients are also supposed to be let to relax in a couch and in this state they are able to speak their mind. In mental centers which handles the mentally ill employ these psychoanalytic techniques which enable them to treat these patients or try and reverse their situation.
The motivations and actions of human beings.Psychoanalys provides an inner understanding of the motives and drives of every human being. It also tries to know the reasons behind complexity and provide a detailed and multi-disciplinary explanations as to why human beings behave in strange ways. It also recognizes that human beings are frequently motivated by unrecognized inner wishes. These desires and wishes normally originates from ones conscious part of the mind. The analyst can be able to obtain the relationship by listening to the patients stories, dreams, fantasies and even observing how the patients themselves are interacting .In real life the if the patients are left with the learners they cannot be in a position to notice these unique behaviours.Through this analysis people with long and outstanding struggle and with difficulties with the way they think and feel about themselves, relationships and even the world around them can be corrected.
The kind of treatment that can be offered varies from short term to long term. In short term treatment it is given to treat those mental problems with a short lifespan like depression and anxiety. The short term problems are mostly due to stressors and even loss of a close related family relative, friend or even a family member. The case for psychological problems are long term and their treatment should be carried out thoroughly in order to prevent the problem from recurring. They can as from childhood to adulthood ( Grinker and Roy). Deeper treatment is a necessary to eliminate the disorder completely.
Psychoanalysis thus is used as an alternative method of treating patients who are not responding together medical attention. It is actually important as it can enable development of good mannerism through behavior modification. This therefore calls for the use of the unconscious mind which can be used to explore into the deep mind of an individual. The psychoanalysts also needs to be properly trained. The patients also needs to have frequent sessions with the analyst in order to get proper medical attention. The patients need to visit the analyst atleast four times a week because the greater the frequency the greater the help. The information from the patients unconscious mind to the conscious mind can be kept fresh and also in the psychoanalyst mind in order for the handling to be easier.
Freud, Sigmund. A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1921.
Grinker, Roy R. “The technique and practice of psychoanalysis.” Archives of General Psychiatry 17.6 (1967): 768-768.
Kohut, Heinz. “Introspection, empathy, and psychoanalysis: An examination of the relationship between mode of observation and theory.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association (1959).
Lacan, Jacques. The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis, 1954-1955. Vol. 2. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1991.
Stern, Daniel N. The Interpersonal World of the Infant A View From Psychoanalysis And Developmental Psychology: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. Basic Books, 2000.