Technology, science and innovation
Science and Technology has been the wheel that rides the current society. From time immemorial, there has been constant change and advancement in these sectors. Technology had been started in the ancient times and this led to various inventions of tools, skills and researches. Discussed below are three countries around the world that have rapid changes in science and technology.
Evidence of technology, science, and innovation, from Greece, Mesopotamia and China
The Greeks are vast known for their contribution in knowledge and vast skills in mechanics and writing. Greeks do have the greatest scholars in science e.g. Alexandria the great whose mechanical knowledge still helps modern scholars. It is evident that their writings are still the few articles and sources of mechanics and engineering knowledge that are able to stand the test of time. They are recognized in their architectural designs that they used in constructing temples.
Mesopotamia is well known for the invention of Archimedes’ screw. This is a simple machine that they used in raising water to various heights for plant irrigation. Mesopotamia is vastly known for its advancement in agriculture. To last longer, the skilled Assyrians made glazes for pottery due to their glasswork techniques. They developed the numerical and geographical expertise that enables them be recognized astrologists.
Cast iron is a product that china is well known for its production and use. Due to their good refractory clays, they are able to construct blast furnace walls. They developed this by use of phosphorus to reduce the temperature of the irons melting point. Through this, they could craft the cast iron to form ornamental shapes. Through this expertise, they make fine pots and thin-walled pans. The Chinese have also been in record of developing less technological skills in innovation. Example is the kite and construction of houses by of bamboo.
Impact of science, technology, and innovation in these societies
Through their advancement in engineering, the ancient Greeks were able to succeed in their water transportation in mode of handling water was efficient. They were able to supply water through aqueducts channels running from the springs and even the reservoirs to many roman towns. This improved the life of the inhabitants and ensured continuous water supply that was estimated to range from 80million to 120million gallons.it is also notable of the outstanding skills that these engineers had in building roads. They were able to construct magnificent road networks characterized with quality drainage system, standard bridges and they were straights and ran smooth. This lessened the means of transport for the people. They were also well conversant with manufacturing of ship and freighters. They kept on advancing in sizes and in A.D. 100s, they were able to build a large cargo vessel that transported grain able to feed the whole of Athens in a year.
Due to agricultural advancement in Mesopotamia, it prompted the Sumerians to invent numerical system to help in administration and their businesses. Hence they had two numerical symbols that they used. These symbols led to easier accounting and management of their businesses. It is remarkable to note that they were able to weather forecast. They recorded accurate astrological data which helped them in predicting seasons and hence improved their agriculture and technology. This kind of scientific research helped them to solve specific problems that they had in astrology. There are records of achievements in medicine that is recorded in Mesopotamia. According to code of Hammurabi, it reveals that during the old Babylonian times, there were healers in the land. Besides, they had physicians too whose work was to perform operations. This was later developed into concepts in prognosis, physical examination and right medicinal prescription. Through this evolution of medicine, the people benefited from this since they were able to be treated and improved health care.
Looking at the advancement in agriculture, we can mention that they purely depended on human labor. This they got from the locals, hence it was a source of living for the people.
China has contemporary and enlightened achievers. They include Tsung Dao Lee who has won Nobel physics prize in 1957. This was a remarkable achievement due to the contribution in physics and manufacture of atomic bombs. Another achiever is Choh Hao Li, a biochemist who made history in the world’s medical field by his vast contribution in pituitary gland. These contributions in science as well as technology have positively influenced the health sector and enhanced efficiency in delivery of medical services in the country.
Disparity regarding the societal views of science, technology, and innovation and their roles within the society between the regions
According to the Greeks, they believe in developing their skills. They adopt ideas and skills from diverse cultures that they came into contact with. Historians argue that the Greek have made little advancements in technology wise since they mainly relied on slaves for their labor. This made them not motivated to venture into energy saving skills. Instead, they dwelt in philosophical studies, politics and trade. During the Roman Empire reign, their main interest was to spread knowledge rather than creating or developing new ones. Greeks and Romans challenge was mixed feelings and diverse attitude they had towards technological advancement. They honored myths a lot as shown in the life of Prometheus who was claiming to be the initiator of civilization. They actually believed that he invented fire and made metal works, craftsmanship and even pottery. In addition, some philosophers like Lucretius had a feeling that technological process is luxury. This led to most of them demoralized and demotivation. Due to power of their kings, they only majored in building war chariots and military equipment.
In Mesopotamia, most of the inhabitants and engineers were practical and preferred experimentation. They ventured into diverse scientific researches and inventions. Unlike the Greeks who preferred sharing the knowledge but not doing the actual practice, they went into the actualization of their beliefs and culture. Hence they made numerous advancements in technology and innovation, something that also influenced the world technology. Their geometrical expertise made them believe that they can make changes in the world of science. This introduced urban-based civilization which in the long run improved the life of the inhabitants of Mesopotamia.
China is a unique country with various technical achievements. The Chinese believed in inventing less technological things example the kites. They also learnt to use bamboo scaffolding in building and construction. These are unique technologies since they incorporated with their culture because the materials for such things were only found in China. It is worth to note that the Mandarins rule hardly embraced technology. However, after then, the Chinese were able to build armadas of ships across Europe and to other parts of the world.
In conclusion, it is evident that technology and innovation started long ago and still there are more changes in future. Science has led to various inventions and discoveries as illustrated from the different countries. Different countries have different development skills and technology that are unique. This is also driven by their cultures and beliefs which they follow. Innovation has been able to take place due to the evolution and rapid advancement in technology