Sample Essay on The future of tourism in the UAE

Literature Matrix

Name of the Author Title Year Objective Methodology Findings Recommendations
Black, D. Big Future Foreseen for UAE Tourism 2015 To find factors that influence expansion of tourism in UAE Secondary review of data Diverse opportunities are available for the tourism expansion in UAE Technological advancements need be appreciated for increased number of tourists
Business Insider The 20 most visited cities in the world 2015 To highlight the most visited cities in UAE Survey and secondary sources analysis Dubai and Abu Dhabi remains the major cities that have been most visited in the world Socio-culture needs be appreciated in UAE for enhanced tourism streaming
Burlo, C. Cultural resistance and ethnic tourism on South Pentecost, Vanuatu. 1996 Analyze cultural and ethnic variation experienced among visitors Secondary Sources Culture variation can be minimized by incorporating other cultures into the UAE cultures for instance Indian culture into the Dubai’s social culture Social cultural exchange needs be carried out. Appreciation of other cultures such as the western cultures
Campbell, M. Ecotourism in rural developing communities 1999 To appreciate environmental factors in relation to UAE tourism Secondary analysis There is need for the government to develop rural infrastructure as a strategy to appreciate UAE tourism More infrastructure needs be developed to attract more tourists to the natural beauty
Crowcroft, O. Abu Dhabi and Dubai Share Rosy Future in Tourism 2014 Highlights the future of tourism in both Abu Dhabi and Dubai Observation, Survey and Secondary sources There are great prospects for both Dubai and Abu Dhabi Technological advancements need be appreciated for increased tourism
Korstanje, M. E. & Ivanov, S. Tourism as a form of new psychological resilience The inception of dark tourism. 2012 To highlight the benefits of tourism as a form of psychological relief Secondary analysis Tourism is beneficial for psychological resilience Locals should appreciate tourism as luxury
Olsen, D. H., Koster, R. L., & Youroukos, N. Last chance tourism! Last Chance Tourism: Adapting Tourism Opportunities in a Changing World, 2013 To highlight strategies of improving tourism in UAE Secondary analysis To find approaches of enhancing tourism opportunities in the modern world Modern strategies such as  can be adopted to improve tourism in the modern world
Stuart, J. & Nadkarni, S. Expo 2020: What must Dubai’s Hospitality and Tourism Industry do to be ready Pre-and Post Event? 2014 To evaluate approaches of enhancing tourism in the Expo 2020 Review of previous sources To find out approaches of incorporating Expo 2020 theme into tourism events and preparation The theme need be incorporated into the preparation of the Expo 2020
World Tourism Organization 2015 Tourism Highlights 2015 Activities to be highlighted in the 2015 tourism Survey and interviews 2015 tourism will be better and greater than previous years due to improved infrastructure and technological appreciation Present activities should highlight Expo 2020 theme

 

Abstract

In the present generation, life is becoming more robotic as machines are taking over labor in every sector. Tourism comes as a remedy to the above mentioned challenges as people obtain the opportunity to physically and mentally relax. The study seeks to find out future benefits Expo 2020 will bring to tourism industry in the UAE. The research identifies and examines all aspects of future of tourism and specially the impact and importance of expo 2020. The research will assist in the analysis of different factors that can be helpful in making investment decisions as well as infrastructure improvements. Several objectives came up while examining the impact of Expo 2020 on the overall future aspects of the tourism industry in UAE. Among them are the economic environmental, political, and socio-cultural objectives. Economically, the study has evaluated the number of direct and indirect job opportunities to be created and the impact of foreign currency in flow. The study seeks to find out environmental implications of the activity. The natural environment has to be preserved. The need and means of environmental education will be assessed. The research will also examine the impact of tourism on the cultural values of the local people. The research will point out and identify issues related to the social-cultural variation. The research will also look in to the political features and impacts of tourism. As countries have different level of bilateral ties with each other that will affect the number of visitors to be allowed and entertained for the specific country.

Keywords: Expo 2020, Economic Development, tourism and Hospitality Industry, Mega Events

The future of tourism in the UAE

Introduction

Over time, life is becoming more and more mechanized using robots. Machines are taking over works and tasks in every field of life; from banks to supermarkets, industries, education sector and health sector. This phenomenon is not only affecting the physical capacity, wellbeing and health of the humans but also negatively impacts the minds. It causes damage to mental health in the form of stress, strain, tensions and feelings of anxiety. Visiting different places not only results in mental and physical relaxation, it expands imagination through interactions with new things, people, and exploring new cultures and civilizations. According to Korstanje and Ivanov (2012), accessibility and transport facilities, such as low-cost carriers also play an important role in tourism. Population and workforce migration can be regarded as a further source of tourism growth (Burlo, 1996).

Thesis

The coming event of Expo 2020 spells good tiding in the industry in UAE

Purpose of the research

This research seeks to identify and evaluate all aspects of future of tourism and specially the impact and importance of Expo 2020. Therefore, this research is being conducted in order to forecast the future of tourism in UAE especially in the context of the coming Expo 2020 as it is expected to pull and entertain a lot of tourist to the Arab nation, which is already overflowed by flocks of tourists on a daily basis from different parts of the world.

Significance/Rationale

This research is essential in examining and analyzing aspects that will directly and indirectly affect the future of the tourism in UAE specifically considering the Expo 2020. The research will analyze different factors that can be helpful in making investment decisions as well as infrastructure improvements. The research is required to judge the scale of tourist that may visit the country in future. It may besides assist us to do their need assessment in order to welcome and entertain them in the best way possible. The research will identify factors that need to be addressed before 2020 so that the country is prepared to receive the maximum number of visitors without compromising the standards of quality and a good reputation that it has always maintained in the tourism industry across the world.

Business tourism has remarkably grown in the last two decade. In 2005, it was worth over 20 billion pounds in terms of its wider economic impact (Business Insider, 2015). The research will also be helpful in determining the current state of affairs of the tourism industry in UAE and identifying the presence of any loopholes in the system. Security of the country is also a major concern. The research will also focus on the security issues and analyze all possible cases in which the security may be enhanced and deterred.

Research Question

  • What will be the positive impact of Expo 2020 on the number of tourist coming to the UAE?

Sub-Questions

  • What would be the most nationality?
  • What would be the tourist range of ages?

Objectives

While conducting our research on the impact of Expo 2020 on the overall future aspects of the tourism industry in UAE we have stated the following objectives.

 

  • Economic Objectives

We will analyze the impact of tourists coming for Expo 2020 on the economy of UAE. We will try to quantify how much new direct or indirect job opportunities will be created and the impact of foreign currency in flow that will positively affect the economy as the foreign visitors will be spending the money in UAE.

  • Environmental Objectives

There is a general perception that “Tourism destroys Tourism” as a there will be a huge influx of tourists suddenly in 2020. The study seeks to find out environmental implications of the activity. The natural environment has to be preserved. The need and means of environmental education will be assessed.

  • Socio Cultural Objectives

The research will also examine the impact of tourism on the cultural values of the local people. As it is well understood that when there will be influx of many foreign people with very different culture then there can be social and cultural issues. The research will point out and identify any such issues.

  • Political Objectives

The research will also look in to the political features and impacts of tourism. As countries have different level of bilateral ties with each other that will affect the number of visitors to be allowed and entertained for the specific country.

 

Literature Review

Tourism is defined as “the commercial organization and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest” (Korstanje, & Ivanov, 2012). Tourism is an important activity for physically and mentally relaxation. UAE is already famous as a tourist centre, majorly due to its architectural icons, spectacular cultural heritage, and unmatched infrastructure. The region looks forward to hosting international visitors in the Expo 2020 and live up to the expectation of the theme, ‘connecting minds, creating the future’. There are several ground-breaking activities, which are expected to improve the tourist sector in relation to the vision 2020 (Jauncey & Nadkarni, 2014). The vision aims at focusing its attention in meeting the demands of the visitors expected in the Expo.

Infrastructure is expected to improve and tourism sector is expected to offer excellent leisure and hospitality. The improvements is expected to assist the sector have a strong foothold in the international platform. This is beneficial in creating a huge increase in the sales and profits by heightening the visitor footfall. The benefits are expected to be long term in sustaining the future of UAE as 70% of the Expo visitors are expected to come from outside the emirates (Jauncey & Nadkarni, 2014). The visitors will have some first class experience in addition to the spectacular views of the region. They will thereafter expect to expose the region to the world. Some of the expected tourist places are the Saadiyat Island Cultural District, luxurious resorts along the Saadiyat Beach, and the entertaining Yas Island among other places.

According to Black (2015), travel and tourism development is expected to increase to 15% of the country’s GDP in the next decade. This will be worth US$75.62 billion annually. The Worldwide Economic Impact Report (WTTC) collected this figure. In 2011, the GDP for the UAE was approximately $13.5%. This is in relation to the travel and tourism contribution, which incorporates the development of the hotels and airlines. Travel and tourism contribution by the hotels, passenger transport, and the airlines is forecasted to rise to 4.6% and continue to rise at 4% per annum by 2022. This report also confirmed that more than 166,000 jobs are annually generated by the industry. These jobs comprised of travel agents, passenger transport services, leisure enterprises and restaurants. These numbers are expected to shoot to 173,000 by 2022. This increase is in relation to the doubling of the motor manufacturing industry and a third increase in the chemical manufacturing. In terms of the world GDP, the tourism sector contributed approximately US $ 6.3 trillion in 2011. The sector additionally gave rise to more employment and thus perceived as a job creator.

According to Crowcroft (2014), Abu Dhabi and Dubai stands dominated the World Travel Market’s Middle East at the London’s Excel Conference Center. This was a reflection of the 2014 tourism as the emirates obtained pleasure from the pitching numbers despite the regional instability its neighbors were facing. More than 20 million visitors are expected to flock in the emirates during the Dubai Expo. Regarding the Vision 2020, hotels are expected to run at 100 %. Three and four star hotels are expected to function to compliment the five star hotels. Among the strategies to be implemented to ensure the success of the Expo is the proactive approach from the government. In relation to the Expo 2020, trading partners in UAE are expected to cooperate to develop the economy, security, energy, entrepreneurship, and education sector. The expected benefits are to flow back to the partnering nations such as India. Other than the economic benefits, the partnering nations will exhibit their rich culture as a contribution to Dubai’s cultural success. Visitors from the partnering nations are expected to be part of the Expo 2020, since the airline infrastructure has developed the short travel visas for air travels from India to Dubai.

Ecotourism

Among the world’s best tourist destinations lies the UAE. The UAE has one of the best landscapes and natural attractions this attraction is attributed by the desire to have an eco-friendly environment within the nation. Tourists can therefore take a majestic natural walk across the country, as the landscape remains untouched. Environmental groups such as the Emirates Environmental group in relation to the tour operators and hotels have organized Eco-tourism in the past. Al Ain, one of the oldest permanently inhabited places was initially a caravan oasis of the trade routes from Levant to Indian Ocean. Other attractions in the region comprise the Al Ain Oasis, wildlife Park and Resort and the Wadi Adventure. There are diverse scuba diving regions such as the Martini Rock and others where families can have some fun (Campbell, 1999).

Ecotourism assists in conservation efforts and protection of the wildlife for the future. This focus has led to the conservation of endangered species such as 18 gazelles of the species, “Damani” and of the bird species, Al-Hur and Hawk falcon among others. This has enabled other tourist attracting activities such as bird watching to be carried out. Sustainability strategies have enabled the region to invest on other biodiversity activities such as renewable energy as part of conserving the environment for future generations.

Factors leading to the expansion of the tourism sector

Several factors contribute to the exploding of the tourism sector in UAE. Among them is the population effect. Increased expatriate workers migrating to the UAE, significance of the family and religious tours and a naturally increasing population growth rate give rise to the inter-regional tours. The 30% population increase is a result of the need for large families among the residents. In the coming fifteen years, it is expected that the growth rate would assume $216 million from the present $55. Additionally, the region is yet to assume the increasing independent, middle income and mature segments. For instance, in the next 15 years, travelers from China, Russia and India are expected to increase. This will be attributed to their national middle level increase and stability, which is expected to be 70%. These travelers are expected to flood major cities such as in Dubai.

UAE is presently diversifying its resources to overcome the past challenge of over-relaying on natural resources like oil. Past under developed manufacturing and service departments are being developed. Diversification is therefore taking place in the aviation, trade, financial and in tourism sectors. It is expected that in fifteen years to come, UAE shall have invested more than $300 billion in infrastructure alone. New hotels are expected to enjoy a 10% fee less than the expected municipal fee. These efforts are expected to yield good results as the UAE is categorized 26th among the most diversified economy in the world. Other growth markets being targeted in the industry include the cruise and the medical tours (Olsen, Koster & Youroukos, 2013). In addition, increased port construction is to attract at least 2.1 million cruise tourists (Business Insider, 2015). By 2020, more than 22 hospitals shall have been constructed in Dubai alone. Another open space for development is the international meetings and convention trade. The number of meetings has been increasing more than in other regions. According to the Gulf Incentives, Business Travel & Meetings (GIBTM), these meetings have tripled over the past decade. This development has been necessitated by the excellent infrastructure and government strategies on the economic agendas. The upcoming visitors are to create transient demand.

The absolute range of the airport infrastructure is unparalleled. Dubai expects to have more than 67 million international visitors in the next one year. This number is to increase to 100 million by 2020. The incomplete Al Maktoum international Airport is presently possessing one run way. By 2027, the airport is to receive more than 160 million passengers annually. Additionally, Dubai is presently working at connecting Asia and the South America. This is to positively affect mobility and logistics on an in international scale. In addition, the bid to host 2020 World Expo has increased infrastructure development. During this six-month exhibition, the middle east will host more than 25 million people. This expo is expected to benefit the airline and the hospitality segments. More than 75,000 rooms are expected to be built to host the expected visitors. This implies that there would be doubling of the hotel inventory within the last six years.

The gateway effect is expected to push Dubai and Abu Dhabi a notch higher (World Tourism Organization, 2015). As in-transit hubs, the cities are to convert into stopover traffic. The Abu Dhabi international Airport was the first Middle Eastern gateway to unlock the American Customs Border Clearance Gate. This role has lifted the airport a notch higher among its travelers. Asian travelers therefore prefer it as a pre-clearance place on their way to U.S Eastern Seaboard. This move is further expected to increase travels to the U.S., as passengers will be allowed to sidestep the bottlenecks in peak traffic at the main American airports. The choice of UAE and the increasing traffic is also instrumental in the African trade. To further develop the airline industry, there is need to improve on digital travel and online booking. This move will further market the region as a beautiful desert with the ability to change its colors and shadows at varying periods of the day. This move will highlight the tribal culture and its nomadic history.

Reasons why tourism is poised to increase in the UAE

UAE has diversified its economy by including its region in the international axis. There is increased economic growth, expansion of infrastructure and tourist traffic. Social-political changes have also taken place in this region due to global positioning. UAE has resorted to promote the hotels by being friendly and supportive to their customers. Through this strategy, UAE’s history and cultural heritage has been known to be richer than the Western heritage. The quality in terms of destination and logistics on the ground has additionally enhanced the quality of hotels. This has attracted more clients to spend most of their free time in these places. As the cultural heritage is spreading, western countries are becoming more advanced in the knowledge of the Arabic culture. This has further improved the social relations between these regions.

Increased population has further contributed to increased travels among the religions within UAE. Population increase has given rise to more workers who uphold the significance of large families and religious travels. The natural population within this regions contributes to inter-religious travels, which contributes to approximately 30% of the tourism. In addition UAE if yet to acknowledge the reliable middle income increase among the Russians and the Indians who have contributed to previous increased tourism. Furthermore, Dubai as one of the cities within UAE is considered by the young as one of the fastest growing cities in terms of entertainment demands.

Other government strategies have led to the increase of the tourists in the region. The government relaxed the visa regime after legislation modification. This move was set to increase tourists. Thus, majority of the locals are able to face challenges in terms of attracting and managing medical tourism clients in the recent past. The move was to remove medical present medical barriers and improve the health and wellness sector. To ease the movement of foreign medical practitioners, a new form of visa has been introduced. The visa allows practitioners to work within the region for limited periods before renewing the visas. This move has enabled the region to draw the best professionals worldwide. This strategy will further increase medical tourisms in the future. Strategy to diversify UAE into aviation, trade, financial services has led to management of resources and reduced over-reliance on exportation of natural resources, which could be the factor behind low development of manufacturing sectors.

The government has resorted to focus, continually, on strategic investments in the market with the aim to develop the tourism sector. After the 2011 economic recovery, the authorities re-energized their efforts in supporting the sector as a move to increase their income and investing in the nations’ infrastructures. The move has included marketing and branding the tourism department in UAE. In particular, the Expo 2020 has further led to promotion of significant infrastructures such as the Dubai Water Canal. This move has further seen the region enjoy political stability in spite of the regional instability such as in Egypt, Syria and in Tunisia. As a result, traditional tourists have chosen UAE as an alternative tourist destination (Stuart & Nadkarni, 2014).

Focused government effort to improve the region’s tourists sector has borne fruits as domestic tourism also increased. This move was also attributed by intimidating economic environment. Consumers saw it wise to invest rather in their own region. The government has further developed investments such as the Summerfest Abu Dhabi, Dubai Sports World and Rock Fest. This has further resulted to steady developments in the recent past. Appreciation of modern technology in online services has led to increased appreciation of the online sales in the sector. Online transactions depict as strong development growth in the tourism sector. This strategy will offer an alternative means of promoting of the travel and tourist products. This strategy will also encourage internet and social media within the region. Online sales are expected to develop in relation to the increased acceptance of modern technological developments in the market.

Developments of modern markets will expose upcoming market resources in the tourism industry in UAE. There is need for analysts to discover more opportunities in the sector by carrying out market analysis. This can only be achievable by understanding the prevailing competitive threats in the market and coming up with corporate strategies after carrying out quantitative analysis and developmental projections. Researching for more markets will further increase the visitors. UAE can appreciate visitors coming from South Korea who are estimated to increase the number by 10% (Stuart & Nadkarni, 2014). Tourist offices can be opened in this region to incorporate airline industry and consumers. This move will further meet the needs of the customers who are for alternative seeking holiday and honeymoon venues. This is in relation to the campaign carried through the online, traditional and the static media. The move can increase cultural heritage, outdoor activities and marine entertainment as part of the holiday activities that will eventually increase the number of visitors. Partnership with other nations such as Germany and U.K will also assist in meeting the goals of the sector.

Research Methodology

Both qualitative and Quantitative research methodology will be best applicable due to the nature and aspects of the research topic. Quantitative will deal with the figures while qualitative method will be applied in collecting and analyzing previously collected data from other sources. Most of the variables under consideration are quantitative in nature. For instance, the level of increased in investments and other economic indicators are quantitative. Cluster sampling is the chosen sampling technique due to the high population the study is to focus on. Population is divided in to clusters and then out of each cluster random sampling is done to choose the participants. Sample size is expected to be approximately 200 participants from different lifestyles. Sampling is designed to show that different nationality holders residing in UAE are included in the sample.

Secondary data collection method will be applied in gathering data. Many researchers, analysts, and economists mainly apply this method. Different business journals, articles, and books are to be studied, reviewed, and taken into consideration. Different websites are to be considered while collecting the figures regarding the impact of expo 2020 on the tourism industry. Data analysis will be done using mathematical and statistical techniques. These included frequency distribution, mean, median, and range. Standard deviation technique will be very useful in pointing out the impact in terms of revenue difference with the happening of expo 2020. Application of forecasting plays a pivotal role in determining and highlighting the difference in terms of quantum of change in investments due to the expo 2020. For primary data, numerous meetings will be arranged with the industry professionals in order to take their professional insight into the matter at hand.

Impact of expo 2020 in numbers

Extracted from www.destinationdubai2020.com

http://www.meed.com/sectors/economy/government/expo-2020-dubais-plan-in-numbers/3187120.article

Work Plan

The Work plan is structured in to the data collection and analysis phase. Firstly, all the relevant data will be collected that relates directly or indirectly with the research problem at hand. Namely, the impact of Expo 2020 on the future of tourism industry in UAE, whereas after collecting all the data, analysis, recommendation and suggestions will be formulated on the basis of the conclusions arrived after thorough consideration of all the aspects of the data under consideration. Work plan consists of two major phases. First phase will be the analysis of the research problem. This entails how the corporate social responsibility affects the private construction companies in operating in UAE and data collection. The second phase of the work plan will be analyzing the collected data, drawing conclusions, and giving recommendations. All the primary and secondary sources will be considered in the collection, analysis and deriving of the conclusions.

Objective Task Success Criteria
Introduction to future of Tourism in UAE Collect data Relevant & Detailed data
Purpose & Significance of Research Collect & Evaluate Data Relevancy & Coherence
Developing Research Questions Analyze the data Specific
Develop Research Objectives Detailed Evaluation Authentic
Determine Research Methodology Data searching Accuracy

 

Conclusion

In the present generation, life is becoming more robotic as machines are taking over labor in every sector. This phenomenon is not only affecting the physical capacity, wellbeing, and health of individuals, it is also bearing a very negative impact on the minds of human beings. The result is many colossal damages to the mental health in form of stress, strain, tensions, and feelings of anxiety. Tourism comes as a remedy to the above-mentioned challenges as people obtain the opportunity to relax physically and mentally. Visiting different places not only results to mental and physical leisure, it enables your mental horizon to expand as you see new things, meet new people, and explore new cultures and civilizations. The study seeks to find out future benefits Expo 2020 will bring to tourism industry in the UAE.

The research identifies and examines all aspects of future of tourism and specially the impact and importance of expo 2020. Therefore, this research is being conducted in order to see the future of tourism in UAE, which is already overflowed by flocks of tourists on daily basis. Recommendations in meeting the goals of the tourism sector in UAE include researching for more markets which will further increase the number of visitors. UAE can appreciate visitors coming from South Korea who are estimated to increase the number by 10%. This is in relation to the campaign carried through the online, traditional and the static media. Partnership with other nations such as Germany and U.K will also assist in meeting the goals of the sector.

Literature Matrix

Name of the Author Title Year Objective Methodology Findings Recommendations
Black, D. Big Future Foreseen for UAE Tourism 2015 To find factors that influence expansion of tourism in UAE Secondary review of data Diverse opportunities are available for the tourism expansion in UAE Technological advancements need be appreciated for increased number of tourists
Business Insider The 20 most visited cities in the world 2015 To highlight the most visited cities in UAE Survey and secondary sources analysis Dubai and Abu Dhabi remains the major cities that have been most visited in the world Socio-culture needs be appreciated in UAE for enhanced tourism streaming
Burlo, C. Cultural resistance and ethnic tourism on South Pentecost, Vanuatu. 1996 Analyze cultural and ethnic variation experienced among visitors Secondary Sources Culture variation can be minimized by incorporating other cultures into the UAE cultures for instance Indian culture into the Dubai’s social culture Social cultural exchange needs be carried out. Appreciation of other cultures such as the western cultures
Campbell, M. Ecotourism in rural developing communities 1999 To appreciate environmental factors in relation to UAE tourism Secondary analysis There is need for the government to develop rural infrastructure as a strategy to appreciate UAE tourism More infrastructure needs be developed to attract more tourists to the natural beauty
Crowcroft, O. Abu Dhabi and Dubai Share Rosy Future in Tourism 2014 Highlights the future of tourism in both Abu Dhabi and Dubai Observation, Survey and Secondary sources There are great prospects for both Dubai and Abu Dhabi Technological advancements need be appreciated for increased tourism
Korstanje, M. E. & Ivanov, S. Tourism as a form of new psychological resilience The inception of dark tourism. 2012 To highlight the benefits of tourism as a form of psychological relief Secondary analysis Tourism is beneficial for psychological resilience Locals should appreciate tourism as luxury
Olsen, D. H., Koster, R. L., & Youroukos, N. Last chance tourism! Last Chance Tourism: Adapting Tourism Opportunities in a Changing World, 2013 To highlight strategies of improving tourism in UAE Secondary analysis To find approaches of enhancing tourism opportunities in the modern world Modern strategies such as  can be adopted to improve tourism in the modern world
Stuart, J. & Nadkarni, S. Expo 2020: What must Dubai’s Hospitality and Tourism Industry do to be ready Pre-and Post Event? 2014 To evaluate approaches of enhancing tourism in the Expo 2020 Review of previous sources To find out approaches of incorporating Expo 2020 theme into tourism events and preparation The theme need be incorporated into the preparation of the Expo 2020
World Tourism Organization 2015 Tourism Highlights 2015 Activities to be highlighted in the 2015 tourism Survey and interviews 2015 tourism will be better and greater than previous years due to improved infrastructure and technological appreciation Present activities should highlight Expo 2020 theme

References

Black, D. “Big Future Foreseen for UAE Tourism.” The National. 2015, 20th November

htp://www.thenational.ae/business/industry-insights/tourism/big-future-foreseen-for-uae-tourism

Business Insider. The 20 most visited cities in the world. 2015, 2nd February

Burlo, C. (1996). Cultural resistance and ethnic tourism on South Pentecost, Vanuatu. Tourism and Indigenous peoples. R. Butler and T. Hinch. London, International Thomson Business Press.

Campbell, M. (1999). “Ecotourism in rural developing communities.” Annals of Tourism Research. 26(3): 534-553

Crowcroft, O. “Abu Dhabi and Dubai Share Rosy Future in Tourism” The National. 2014, November 16th. http://www.thenational.ae/business/travel-tourism/abu-dhabi-and-dubai-share-rosy-future-in-tourism

Extracted from www.destinationdubai2020.com

http://www.meed.com/sectors/economy/government/expo-2020-dubais-plan-in-numbers/3187120.article

Korstanje, M. E., & Ivanov, S. (2012). Tourism as a form of new psychological resilience: The inception of dark tourism. CULTUR-Revista de Cultura e Turismo, 6(4), 56-71

Olsen, D. H., Koster, R. L., & Youroukos, N. (2013). Last chance tourism! Last Chance Tourism: Adapting Tourism Opportunities in a Changing World, 105.

Stuart, J. & Nadkarni, S. (2014). “Expo 2020: What must Dubai’s Hospitality and Tourism Industry do to be ready Pre-and Post Event?” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Theme, 6(4): 381-386

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-03-2014-0017

World Tourism Organization. (2015). 2015 Tourism Highlights. 2015, 25th June. Retrieved from www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284416899