The Influence of Globalization on NGOs as Important Policy Makers in Nations
At the end of the 20th century, the influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) had increased across the globe. These non-state actors appeared to have a great impact on the policies of different nations in which they were established (Weiss, 2016). The globalization process has played a crucial role in the rising numbers and the influence of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in many nations, specifically in the international arena. Furthermore, INGOs and NGOs are emerging as powerful players in international decision-making. The role of INGOs and NGOs is very crucial in the decision making of different nations and is enhanced by the increasing rate of globalization.
It is apparent that globalization plays a vital role in reshaping a nation. The INGOs and NGOs currently play a vital role in given nation-states’ governments, making them accountable to global organizations and institutions. The process of globalization certainly contributes to the transformation and decrease of authorities. According to Grinin (2012), forces that affects a nation’s self-rule globally include international financial flows, global establishments and international empires, among others. For instance, and international organization like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has a lot of influence to several nations in their financial policies since it is the main source of funding to the nations. The national authority, in various circumstances, is exercised under emergency conditions; however, the designs of space and administrative characters are subject to interruption as a result of activities by INGOs and NGOs, which try to be identified in the international social order. Moreover, globalization has enhanced the presence of NGOs and INGOs among nations, which has had an influence on policy making decisions in the sovereign states. Globalization has become real, however, its nature and haste differ across different periods and space. It is not easy to define the concept of globalization due to several meanings attached to it with regard to one’s perspective. According to Heshmati and Lee (2010), globalization can be defined from numerous facets, such as economic, political, technological and cultural elements with an interpretation of various key components, such as transportation, communication and migration. According to Khan and Dominelli (2000), globalization is featured by the movement of production processes from original industrial nations to developing nations. This paper will emphasize on the NGOs as an independent entity in nations and markets where citizens can form groups to pursue social ideals and public tenacities, which are beneficial to them as individuals and collectively.
History of NGOS and INGOS
Both NGOs and INGOs are not new concepts in the world today. There has been an intense escalation in their prominence in the last two decades. Although there is a big deal of modification in the magnitude and actions of both NGOs and INGOs in several nations, the segment is increasingly expounding in more regions and nations. For instance, it is approximated that there are over 100,000 NGOs, for instance, European Women’s Lobby (EWL), European Treatment Centers for Drug Addiction-euro-TC, European Institute of Studies of Prevention (IREFREA), European Institute for Risk, Security and Communication Management (EIRISC), European Foundation of Drug Helplines (FESAT), European Association for the Defence of Human Rights (AEPADO) which have emerged in Europe after the period that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Evidently, the rise and expansion of development-leaning NGOs is triggered by the presence of resources to upkeep them. The rising importance of foundations, global donors and regimes in backing up nongovernmental organizations has made resources attainable, thereby creating inducements for attractions to establish NGOs that can utilize the resources. The outcomes of this initiative in several nations have been an explosion of many NGOs that are well structured to make proper use of the resources than to achieve their supposedly significance-based societal objectives.
NGOs actors are in the form of charitable entities, churches, rights lobbies, and other wide ranging agencies. NGOs are different from other national and business segments on several magnitudes. Whereas government pursues to deliver public services and goods, the government uses its powers to raise funds for this undertaking, especially from revenue. On the other hand, the business sector works to offer private goods and services through intended exchange. However, NGOs seek out to objectify the ideals and purposes of the public and groups of citizens using their autonomous deliberate actions (Anheier, 2014). This is attained through the influence exerted by the public groups, which is transferred to the business sector actors and the government. NGOs perform numerous functions, for instance, offering services to poor people, constructing local aptitude for self-help, examining as well as promoting guidelines that support disadvantaged communities and promoting inquiry and statistics sharing. Additionally, a good number of NGOs emphasize on attending to the needs of their members while others concentrate on addressing concerns raised by their patrons who are outside the agency. Some NGOs activities operate within nations, working on developments that effect the public at local levels and other impacts are felt at the national level. This course influences states’ policies and the international arenas, such as the Transparency International Agency.
Nevertheless, not all civil NGOs players are correspondingly effective about realizing societal objectives or public devotions. Furthermore, not all the NGOs adhere to standards of broad-mindedness, interchange and nonaggression, which are fundamental to the meaning of a civil society (Keck & Sikkink, 2014). However, NGOs are influential artists in numerous situations.
Numerous NGOs have sought to enlarge their influence outside the local and domestic edges. This is through the creation of international NGO (INGOs), which are structured to operate across national boundaries. For instance, the Transparency International is a good example of an INGO that has member organizations in more than 30 nations. They offer national support to the worldwide initiative in detecting and decreasing corruption. Another way that has ensured a global action of NGOs is through the formation of multinational links where member entities share values, facts and a joint dialogue that allow them to harmonize their activities. One of the effective transnational networks is the development of extensive links among NGOs and other players that address environmental issues. Such links enhance the exchange of information and approaches. Another way that NGOs action is felt internationally is through the establishment of international partnerships among different players in a given field that organizes shared policies and strategies for manipulating deliberate decision making both at national and international levels. For example, a partnership between national and international environmental NGOs with managers of the World Bank established transformations in the financial institutions’ information entry guidelines and the creation of the inspection panel to examine grievances about the effects of Bank projects.
Effects of Globalization on NGOs and INGOs
Globalization influences the politics of NGOs within nations and across national confines in many ways. Different nations across the globe differ significantly in the magnitude to which NGOs are active in their national arena and the manner in which they are exposed to the influences of globalization. The majority of nations, for instance, North Korea seem resolute to remain secluded from exterior influences. Other nations, however, are dedicated to control any non-state organizations that might seem to be a threat to state power and authority, for instance, China. When a given state’s access is opened to information, trade, and travel among other international components, the influence on NGOs and its agencies may be intense. The flow of information that will be available through the media, Internet and other communication channels rapidly raises awareness to the citizens in the society about how other people live. This also enhances the spread of concepts about elements that limit their neighbors’ lives and spread a wide-range of options to past performs. This enhanced awareness about the broader world is almost unavoidable. Disclosure to this torrent of information can neglect deep-rooted opinions and anticipations and renew allegiances to ancient ideals. This information can also bring about deep deliberations of issues affecting society, such as concepts like gender issues, land equality and ethnic matters. Furthermore, information flow that goes along with essential societal tenets can be the foundation for the beginning of NGOs that speak with new influential voices on issues of national policy and governance processes (Mostashari, 2005).
The NGOs opinions can be seemingly frightening when they are backed by international resources. The contact with the external world through globalization may also intensify the issues and expose the economic problems in nations. Economic balance is very sensitive since it offers citizens more goods and other products at affordable prices. It is also a source of new employment opportunities as organizations shift to operate in growing markets with cheap labor. However, when an economy is underperforming, it sets the stage for many problems to the citizens. There is a possibility of loss of job opportunities in the government in a rejoinder to structural adjustment programs or sideline groups as a result of declining exports. There are also cases of commercial catastrophes that make a nation not able to meet the criteria of international competition. When a nation finds itself in this situation and becomes poorer, the consumers to be helped by NGOs increase in figures and needs. Globalization powers at the national level, therefore, can reduce state powers and authority over the economy. This can take place through intense pressure for self-governing liability, or raise enquiries about national autonomy. These progresses can create a political space for NGOs and other civil societies as alternate sources of services that were initially offered by the state. These entities will provide the services in the name of observers, promoters for government strategy design and execution, and as policy financiers with state partners to monitor enhanced services. When globalization enlarges the political space in a nation, NGOs may arise to react to the issues touching the disadvantaged and marginalized individuals that would otherwise stay unrepresented under previous regimes (Heshmati & Lee, 2010).
Nevertheless, it is not apparent that political, cultural and economic aspects of globalization will automatically support each other. Globalization in a nation may at times not concurrently highlight the significance of fundamental social tenets, or create a more political space for NGO initiatives. Globalization may as well fail to create economic outcomes that aggravate poverty. Nations may decide to open doors to global markets to regulate the political repercussions of globalization. Nonetheless, when a nation is open to globalization, it highly expects NGOs to be significant players in its growth. The NGOs main functions include emphasis on the political principles of individualism, freedom and equal rights, and encouraging and reinforcing the rise of national civil societies (Anheier, 2014).
Globalization and INGOs/NGO Alliances
The escalations of information stream, human travel and entrepreneurship linked with globalization have enhanced the formation and processes of international NGOs and INGO associations easier and less costly. The expenses of international group and management have been extremely decreased due to the shrinking world. Globalization has also enhanced the growth of new problems to which international NGOs and alliances may be particularly relevant. The rise of transnational issues, for instance, technological development, environmental problems, social entrepreneurship and cross-border pollution, has in recent times harshly overstretched the aptitudes of inter-national organizational arrangements. NGOs alliances with INGOs have arisen to answer to the issues associated with the factors named above in numerous instances, providing services and responding to the issues. NGOs have also played a leading role in promoting policies, such as conducting politics in the current technological era, global networks and social entrepreneurship (Brown, Khagram & Moore, 2002). Under harsh environmental conditions, NGOs have provided services that support policy transformation and problem-solving ideas and views.
Furthermore, International NGOs and NGO associations have played a critical role in reacting to tragedies and providing services for several years, for instance the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). This is one of the major common functions of international NGOs. In many instances, NGOs origin is traced in industrialized nations, which have extended branches and great missions in developing nations (Anheier, 2014). In the recent forum of the eleven largest global relief and development organizations (such as CARE, OXFAM), a number of challenges were identified, which related to the globalization processes. For instance, after the end of First World War, there have been increased intrastate fights and interior refugee streams. This has led to public declines thereby decreasing the aptitude of national agencies to address the conflicts as well as the humanitarian crises. Globalization has enhanced poverty levels in several regions, and the deteriorating progress, support resources have enlarged the rivalry among transnational NGOs over resources. This trend has significantly expounded the request for support and extremely decreased the ability to fulfill the demand. Therefore, it is apparent that for transnational service provision NGOs, globalization is increasing the needs for services although the resources are deteriorating. These organizations’ agencies feel the pressure coming from donors to develop into business like entities that are results oriented in their response to the prevalent focus on market-centered methodologies to management. Besides, the rise of other civil society organizations in many emerging market nations is pushing transnational service NGOs to change the local operations of NGOs. This transformation puts pressure on the redefining of their local operations and original roles, which make their employees outdated. Consequently, the outcomes of globalization are forcing several transnational service NGOs to incorporate essential transformations.
The new roles of international NGOs and alliances with local NGOs, which focus on policy analysis and advocacy on issues affecting the society like technological development, have been enhanced by the solidifying systems of international interdependence as a result of globalization. This has resulted in many issues in several nations, which the civil society has developed interests. Some of these concerns have enhanced the formation of the organizations at the international level and constructed pacts with NGOs at the state and local levels. The international promotion networks concerned with the issues of environment, politics, global social network, corruption, and human rights, have frequently been initiated by global NGOs, which are later linked to State and local partners. In other cases, national NGOs and other social entities have created alliances with worldwide associates that play a significant role in influencing national and international policy-making (Keck & Sikkink, 2014).
The theory of learning and problem-solving explains the growing number of international NGOs and alliances that is being perpetrated by globalization and influence on national policy making. This is because issues arising in different nations are exposed by the high rate of globalization and attract several NGOs to act as response mechanism in providing solution internationally under the alliances. As the NGOs increase, their influence also in a given nation increases. Problem solving theory entails a process where people in the society through experience learn to get solution to given problems in coalitions. Nevertheless, the resolutions to these issues vary depending on the effort from numerous different perspectives. For instance, the phases of world organization in the procedure of solving financial and political problems in some of the world regions are shaped by globalization belief (Bertucci & Alberti, 2003). The international players endeavor to impact the local politics of nations in several ways. The international pressure from international NGOs exerted by non-state players can target state and other non-national actors, which at times involve military intervention. Although the international gravity in all cases does not win, it is often influenced by international NGOs as steered by globalization.
The pressure exerted in policy making in the Middle East is one of the exceptional influences that emanates as a result of the activities of NGOs and INGOs. It indicates ways through which international pressure enhances discrepancy across nations and divergence within nations in addition to globalization. This implies that international pressure can cause nations to become more dissimilar and create groups within nations that are different from each other (Corstange & Marinov, 2012. These effects are highly felt in the Middle East, since international pressure from NGOs and other international entities strives to assume highly talked about formulas, which affect the nation’s independent decision making process. Therefore, NGOs and INGOs associations normally get directly attached to such issues, thus, directly affecting the lives of the public. The NGOs play significant functions in voicing and fusing issues across different cultures to get public support on international concerns and problems. Another illustration is The Global Network on Violence against Women case, which helps to identify and bring to light the common topics on actions that focus on violence issues across the globe. These include the bride price settlement deaths in India, feminine genital mutilation in Africa, wife abuse in North America, and rape and torture of political prisoners in Latin American among others.
It is evident that non-governmental organizations are progressively significant players in global arenas and several countries. Their growth in the past decades is attributed to the forces of globalization, which have propagated to the personal, economic, political and social uprisings to enhance the emergence of stronger NGOs. Nevertheless, NGOs distribution is uneven across different nations. The openness to globalization in different nations appears to be the fundamental background for rising strength and diversity of NGOs. The development of international NGOs and NGO associations has also been enhanced by globalization. Their outcomes have been visible, especially in the provision of basic services, policy exploration and promotion, and social knowledge and problem-solving. NGOs and INGO alliances have detected evolving issues and problems both at national and international levels, expressed new ideals and standards, established or transformed institutional structures, encouraged improvements in worldwide practice, and assisted in the resolution of conflicts and differences. The influences of NGOs both locally and internationally lead to negative outcomes of independent international NGOs and NGO alliances in influencing the sovereignty of state nations in decision making.
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