Sample Essay on The scientific method

The concepts of scientific method

The scientific method largely utilizes empirical studies or evaluates any measurable evidence in order to draw up conclusions. The model is composed of 6 major components and researchers may utilize them in a linear manner or in an iterative process. The first component entails “asking a question” to narrow down the study (Begley, & Ioannidis, 2015). After asking a question, a researcher conducts a background study to review some of the authors who have studied a similar subject. Further, he/she comes up with “hypotheses” that will need to be proved by the research in the third step. The fourth step entails testing the experiment by utilizing various tools that might include conducting a study or performing a lab experiment (Steinle, 2009). After experiments are conducted, the researcher then analyses their data and draw their own conclusions then publish the results in a reputable scientific Journal.

Analysis of “PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF INTERNET ADDICTION IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS,” Research, by Tayyar Şaşmaz, Seva Öner,  A. Öner Kurt,  Gülçin Yapıcı, Aylin Ertekin, Yazıcı, Resul Buğdaycı and Mustafa Şiş

The above research sought to determine internet addiction among high school subjects. The research therefore followed the tenets of the scientific method since it began by asking a question and the question framed was “what factors contribute to internet addiction among high school students”.

In addition, the authors of the research also collected a lot of background data in order to review some of the theories and studies conducted by previous authors. The background research therefore enabled them to come up with several hypothesis to test out during the study. Some of the hypotheses postulated were;

H1: Depression, low self-esteem and stress were likely to increase the rate at which high school students used the internet.

H 2: Student’s less likely to read are more likely to be in social media sites or other gaming sites.

After coming up with the above hypothesis, the authors utilized two methods of the scientific method in order to test out whether the hypotheses were true or not. Therefore, the authors selected a sample and gave the sample structured questionnaires that utilized the internet addiction scale as the assessment tool. As such, the researchers were able to disseminate their own results after performing data analysis and this enabled them to come up with their own conclusions. Therefore, in line with the principles of the scientific method, the authors were able to publish their results in a reputable scientific Journal and prove their hypotheses to be correct as most of the respondents with the highest rates of internet were suffering from depression or were not engaged in serious study.

Finally, the study also narrowed its sample to study the phenomena in high school students and utilized the randomization technique to select the sample.

Part 2

Research project: DETERMINING THE SUCCESS OF METHADONE PROGRAMS ON COCAINE ADDICTS

The above research project can help us the concepts of behavioral addictions as it can shed light on whether Methadone programs can be utilized to treat drug addicts across the board. I can therefore utilize the scientific method by asking a question on whether “methadone programs have been successful in weaning off cocaine addicts? Further, I would go on and conduct a background research on the subject matter by reviewing authors who have conducted research on similar studies. In addition, I would also propose hypothesis to be tested out by the experimental design (Open Science Collaboration, 2015).

The experimental design would therefore entail a sample of about 500 recovering addicts selected from a rehabilitation. I would therefore utilize data analysis models like the regression models to determine the number of individuals who have been able to stop using cocaine after being inducted into methadone programs (Pournaghash-Tehrani & Hassantash, 2011). I would also utilize data analysis tools to ensure that the data utilized has no bias or margin of error. Hence, after performing data analysis, I would propose my findings and publish the article in a reputable Journal stating whether the research found any new information and whether the research objectives were met or not.

References

Begley, C. G., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2015). Reproducibility in science: improving the standard for basic and preclinical research. Circulation research116(1), 116-126.Retrieved from http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/1/116.short

Open Science Collaboration. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science349(6251), aac4716. Retrieved from http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6251/aac4716

Pournaghash-Tehrani, S., & Hassantash, M. (2011). Emotional styles of drug addicts in methadone maintenance programs: Evaluation and comparison. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences15, 203-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.074

Sasmaz, T., Oner, S., Kurt, A., Yapici, G., Yazici, A., Bugdayci, R., & Sis, M. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors of Internet addiction in high school students. The European Journal Of Public Health24(1), 15-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckt051

Steinle, F. (2009). Scientific Change and Empirical Concepts. Centaurus51(4), 305-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0498.2009.00156.x