Deductive reasoning refers to a logical process where a conclusion depends on the concordance of several premises that are usually assumed true. On the other hand, inductive reasoning is aimed at establishing or increasing the probability of its conclusion. In inductive reasoning, the main aim of the premises is to be strong, if they are correct, then it is unlikely for the conclusion to be wrong.
These are theories concerned with the general aspects of social processes, and it focuses on abstract concepts and ideas, but not particular evidence. The nursing theorist linked with this theory is C Wight Mills. This theory is a type of deductive reasoning because its premises are based on a general conclusion rather than specific evidence.
Middle Range Theories
The nursing theorist linked with this theory is Robert K. Merton. It is a theory with restricted scope that explains a particular set of phenomenon. This theory was developed using inductive and deductive reasoning. It was developed based on the following phases; choosing of concepts and their synthesis make up the first phase, and the second phase comprises defining the interrelationship between concepts, testing hypothesis, and presenting and verifying the theory.
These are theories that make statements on how learning take place and formulate models that can be used to explain and foresee learning outcomes (Hogue 1). This theory was developed using deductive reasoning because conclusions in this theory are drawn from learning outcomes.
Refer to theories that address therapeutics and the results of interventions. It entails propositions for change and predicts the effects of a particular strategy of a nursing intervention. This theory is developed from deductive reasoning because it entails predicting effects of a specific outcome.
It is a theory of how people, with their different motives and their different objectives, make and change their environments. This theory is linked with Pierre Bourdieu. It is developed from inductive reasoning because different people with different intentions lead to different outcomes.
Basic Human Needs Theory
This theory indicates that the main cause of violence is unmet human needs. Violence takes place when some individuals lack an alternative way of meeting their needs. The founder of this theory was Abraham Maslow (Masters 102). He argued that some needs are urgent than others. This theory was developed from deductive reasoning because conclusions in this theory depend on whether an individual has met or not met his basic needs.
It is an approach to questions on how an individual understands other persons. Its focus is on environmental contexts and bodily behaviors rather than mental processes. The nursing theorist behind this theory is Shaun Gallagher’s.
It offers a complete set of definitions, examples, and principles and descriptions for analyzing all categories of outcomes and performance management systems in any domain of any level. It helps in the understanding of how the system functions. The founder of this theory was Dr. Paul Duigan. The main concepts in this theory are outcome systems and outcomes hierarchies. This theory was developed on both inductive and deductive reasoning because it entails several premises to come up with a conclusion.
The founders of this theory were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Masters 154). This theory states that individuals attain their full ability by moving from basic needs to self-actualization (Masters 154). This theory was developed from inductive reasoning because the outcomes depend on how an individual has moved from basic needs to self-actualization.
Stress and Adaptation Theories
This theory is concerned with how an individual cope with stressful conditions. Its focus is psychological responses. The theorist linked with this theory was Hans Selye’s. This theory was developed from inductive reasoning because it focuses on how an individual try to cope up with stressful situations and find a solution.
Hogue, Rabecca. “Theories – Descriptive/Prescriptive Learning Theories / Instructional Design Theories”. 2017, http://rjh.goingeast.ca/2012/03/04/theories-descriptiveprescriptive-learning-theories-instructional-design-theories/.
Masters, Kathleen. Nursing Theories. 1st ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012. Print.