Sample Essay on Understanding Organizational Behavior in Leadership

Abstract

Organizational behavior in leadership signifies the study of personal and group attempts within an organization, which necessitates being understood for taking full benefit of organizational performance. The contingency theory affirms that successful leadership relies on the characteristics of the leader and the existing conditions. Transformational leadership theory concerns the behaviors of the leaders that stir the workers to great degrees of motivation and success. Workers ought to be inspired to actualize their strength and there are diverse approaches of facilitating and empowering them. Transformation leadership motivates workers through the creation of an effective organization behavior and the most excellent approach of encouraging employees through a reward scheme. The literature review utilized 15 sources, which presented pertinent research to the topic: understanding organizational behaviors in leadershi

 

Understanding Organizational Behavior in Leadership

Literature Review

Introduction

Organizational behavior in leadership denotes the study of personal and group endeavors within an organization, which requires being understood for taking full advantage of organizational performance. In addition, organizational behavior of individuals is necessary to be explored to establish the traits and qualities of leadership (Wang & Wong, 2011). Therefore, organizational behavior entails the study on human conduct in an organizational situation, the interface involving human conduct and the organization, and the organization at large. Organizational behavior tackles employee attitudes and sentiments and entails job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and emotional labor. While job satisfaction denotes the sentiments an individual has concerning the job or aspects of the job, for instance, remuneration and supervision, organizational commitment entails the degree to which workers experience connection with the organization, and emotional labor involves the necessity that workers demonstrate some emotions such as smiling at the clients.

There have been many approaches and assumptions regarding leadership. While the early theories centered on the attributes of leaders, later theories concentrated on leader conduct, and conditions in which employees can be successful. One of the leadership theories is the contingency theory that affirms that successful leadership relies on the attributes of the leader and the condition (Mayfield & Taber, 2010). On the same note, transformational leadership theory is about the behaviors of the leaders that stir followers to great degrees of motivation and achievement.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Contemporary organizations increasingly demand leaders that not only illustrates the core corporate social responsibility principles revealed in their mission statements but as well practice the behavioral capability to constructively influence the ideals and guiding ideologies of the direct accounts and co-workers. In this regard, corporate social responsibility is no longer a requirement that organizations feel they ought to undertake, but has currently turned out crucial to the functions of the majority of the top performing organizations (Morgeson, Aguinis, Waldman, & Siegel, 2011).

Because of the rise in consumer, investor, supplier, and worker demands for CSR, managers have begun to ask important questions regarding how to manage these activities and how to allocate resources to them. All of this has led to a strong organizational and community demand for research on CSR-related topics (Morgeson et al., 2011, p. 283).

With the risks and opportunities linked to corporate, social, and environmental accountabilities turn out to be excellently comprehended, organizations are endeavoring to create tactical capital from the reception of the responsibilities (Vancouver, 1996). In this regard, a wide pool of research has evaluated the existence of monetary payoffs to enhanced social receptiveness, the impact of insights regarding corporate social sensitivity on clients, and the charisma of social performance to shareholders. This has called for organizational leaders to pay special consideration to the significance of workers in corporate social responsiveness. Such studies offer proof of payoffs to facilitated social responsibility, encompassing the observation that more socially accountable corporations are more attractive to potential workers and may thus gain from the extensive scope of applicants, and a more dedicated labor force since workers will be proud to relate to organizations with positive reputation.

The moment an organization gives back to its community and beyond, and strengthens the workers to embark on the same; there are far-reaching evident returns. Workers desire to operate in organizations that are dedicated to turning the world into a better place, clients enjoy making their purchases in such organizations, and the organizations can draw board members that can actually ensure greater of a difference. Corporate social responsibility is employed not just as a means of managing reputation and organizational growth, but also as a driver for success, platform for novelty, and an approach of facilitating corporate civilization. Making development projects in the community is beneficial for the organization and constructively influences the end result (Schultz, 2012).

Individual Value System

If well nurtured, the individual value system of a leader could act as a perceptual sieve that determines decisions and conducts and propels their approaches of generating organizational value (Posner & Munson, 1979). Organizational values have a tendency of defining the suitable processes that manage the conduct of everyone in the organization. The leadership in an organization is at times undertaken with great planning and forethought and could be set up in quite official means, possibly resulting in written affirmation concerning organizational values or in any case a motto or a record of values that the organization considers commendable. Nevertheless, it is just as probable that all organizational values have developed with time and are entrenched in some approaches in the corporate culture.

Be it derived officially or informally, studies affirm that devoid of organizational values, people will engage in conducts that are in line with their individual value systems, which could result in conducts that are detrimental to the success of the organization, or pull it in different courses thus lessening concentration and energy towards the achievement of objectives. On the contrary, a noticeably expressed standard of operation can hold an organization firmly thus resulting in enhanced focus towards the realization of the set goals (Valentim, Saldanha, & Ferasso, 2011). On this note, it can be affirmed that the values of an organization are strongly in line with its purpose, operation, and vision that it is endeavoring to accomplish.

The combination of individual value systems and the articulated work ethics in an organization could lead to the enhancement of stronger employee loyalty and esteem for the organization. In the contemporary world, attrition in organizations has turned out to be progressively challenging (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2014). The necessity to create employee enthusiasm and commitment to the success of the organization is of paramount consideration for the retention of workers and infusion of passion in their undertakings. Studies have supported the fact that if a workers is completely convinced in the tasks that she/he carries out in the organization, such an employee will be invigorated to generate an essential, safe, and favorable setting with pride, commitment, and deference to purpose.

Employee Motivation

Employee motivation entails the set of practices that stimulate, direct, and sustain human conduct toward the realization of some objectives (Hauser, 2014). Workers ought to be stimulated to actualize their strength and there are different means of facilitating and empowering them. Employee motivation entails the task of reward schemes in the motivation of workers according to their requirements for internal and external motivation necessities. The other aspects that stimulate workers are the form of tasks that they are obliged to undertake, the added benefits such as vacations and privileges that encompass organization provided housing and financing for the schooling of the employees’ children, in addition to the provision of health insurance for workers and members of their family.

In the present times, there has been increased focus on the motivation of workers through events for fun and recreation where they take part in the much-necessary stress alleviating activities (Tudorescu, Zaharia, Zaharia, & Zaharia, 2010). In addition, the majority of workers are stimulated by the presence of prominent leaders in the executive positions of the organization. There are many theories of motivation that are pertinent to organizational behavior in leadership, for instance, Theory Y. Theory Y is anchored on the conviction that with the provision of suitable working environments, the majority of employees will succeed. The employees are deemed the most significant asset of the organization. It is assumed that employees can derive pleasure from their mental and physical tasks, considering it as a game or as a pleasurable thing. Workers can take accountability and resolve difficulties in an inspired manner with the purpose of not requiring being shadowed all the time; employees will be dedicated to goals in line with the satisfaction they obtain from realizing them. In this regard, Theory Y leaders believe that the realization of the objectives of the organization has to emanate from the treatment of every employee as a mature and responsible person, and adopt an approach of participatory, democratic leadership, anchored in self-direction and self-discipline and demanding little external management.

Leaders have to comprehend precisely what stimulates every worker in the organization. Several employees could be motivated by monetary rewards, others by acknowledgement, and numerous by the working conditions. As an organizational leader, one has to evaluate the work accountabilities of workers and the underlying incentives. The assessment of workers demands one to interact with every employee personally to talk concerning their work-associated desires. The majority of workers appreciate the concerns of the leaders in their lives (Vasu, Stewart, & Garson, 1998). Amid the most excellent tasks that one can undertake as a leader for the motivation of the employees is leading by example; that is, if one is lazy, inclined to postponing things or permitting the rage to burst, there is a great possibility of finding the same conduct with the workers. If an organizational leader desires motivating the workers to work towards success in their assigned duties, he/she has to act in the manner in which he/she would like them to also perform. Leaders should speak politely, express respect, and offer commendation where appropriate. Fairness is a key aspect in the motivation of employees in an organization. The leaders have to generate fair strategies of rewards, enticements, and benefits that stimulate the workers to put more effort. A successful leader does not show partiality to some employees but employs just remuneration plans, employee performance assessments, and constant strategies and initiates a fair and steady work setting.

Salience

The level of significance of an organization in the life of an employee denotes his/her organizational salience. The degree of significance of an organization to an employee is established on the foundation of dissimilar attributes that are swayed by the employed leadership approach. Leadership has the ability of influencing many job associated conducts such as the attitude of employees, their motivation and progress, and engagement in the assigned responsibilities, which may all impact the extent of a worker’s organizational salience. According to Johns (2006), the employees that present superior prominence to their organization realize greater satisfaction from carrying out the assigned roles. The extent to which workers demonstrate their emotional intimacy with the organization is broadly impacted by the leadership in action. For instance, transformational leaders endeavor a constructive transformation in the employees that they lead. They ensure that the employees are lively, intense, zealous, and motivated with respect to ensuring enhanced achievement of all the employees in the organization. In this regard, the workers that have a high level of salience have a strong ability of coping with organizational changes and thriving even in the course of turbulent times in the organization.

Organizational Neuroscience

Organizational neuroscience has a tremendous assurance in the facilitation of organizational research and development (Lindebaum & Jordan, 2014). The reality that organization neuroscience is supported by scientific explanations is crucial in assisting the leaders comprehend the manner in which the employees’ brains are wired and the insinuation of such details each day for the success of the organization, the employees, and the different teams. Studies have determined that neuroscience is different from other instruments that are applicable when it comes to the enhancement of the employees’ performance. Successful leaders have a well-polished organizational neuroscience that has developed with time from professional, in addition to the individual’s experience. In this regard, organizational neuroscience seeks to outstandingly assist leaders satisfy the varying demands of the organizations in the continued search for enhanced triumph.

Organizations experience challenges each day in their endeavor to remain ahead of the competition and advance their success (Lindebaum & Jordan, 2014). Organizational neuroscience plays a vital role in providing leaders with a practical lens in their operations, which aids the employees develop internal, germane knowledge and ability. With the rising market demands, organizations are seeking to raise their output with lesser labor force. They are looking for greater innovation on limited financial plans and desire to realize better resolutions with minimal time to contemplate. Attributable to this pressure, it is not surprising to find that employees are under greater strain as compared to their earlier experiences. With such occurrences, the motivation of the employees drops, gaps in the proficiency deficiencies widen, and the rate of absenteeism rises. Organizational neuroscience assists in comprehending what the employees feel in their guts. It provides a language to explain the manner in which augmented uncertainties in the organization increases the degree of fear in the reasoning of the workers, which leads to a cascading impact.

With reduced employee motivation, the ability to give attention to performance decreases and the employees have a high likelihood of getting distracted (Lindebaum & Jordan, 2014). With such negative events and the workers are asked to work in areas they do not prefer, they encounter greater fatigue, which could result in unanticipated responses and, in some circumstances, even organizational failure. In this regard, it is evident that emotions are communicable as the employees acquire unconscious indications from organizational leaders. On this note, awareness is the first stride in a bid for the leaders to prevent organizational failure. Through the application of the understanding of neuroscience, organizational leaders can obtain greater knowledge into the things that are negatively affecting the significant assets of the organization, its workforce. Neuroscience excellently explains the feelings of the employees based on their experience and the leaders can then employ that understanding to create a practical setting where the employees can air their grievances in a manner that will result in their amicable resolved. Having the understanding from neuroscience does not just assist the leaders present an apparent satisfaction of the needs of the employees but also offers them the ability to develop awareness concerning the organization’s shared brain as a precious asset in the facilitation of organizational success.

Organizational Change and Organizational Development

Successful leadership is amid the most significant influences in the organizational change and development (Meltzer & Stagner, 1980). Effective leaders are the ones that have the necessary skills and understanding acquired from experiences that permit them to handle the daily undertakings efficiently. Organizational culture is crucial while dealing with concerns of organizational change and development. Some of the hindrances that may hinder effective change management endeavors encompass the secrecy and silence cultures. Meltzer and Stagner (1980) affirm that competent leaders have the capacity to overcome hindrances with skills and abilities. The initiation and coordination of change always demands well-honed leadership proficiencies. Nearly all organization changes experience considerable levels of resistance, and the successful leader is able to address resistance and execute the changes effectively. The identification, handling, and conquering of resistance is at all times a lengthy and challenging practice. Employees are opposed to change, particularly the radical changes, which calls for leadership skills to rise above the resistance successfully.

Moderate changes do not usually necessitate official instigation since they are initiated in manageable bits (Wilder, Austin, & Casella, 2013). They are usually simple to address and implement and could experience no resistance from the workers as they occur for a short period, and the employees in the organization are familiar with such forms of changes and developments. On the contrary, far-reaching changes and developments are hard to adopt and cause greater resistance, which demands more than basic leadership proficiencies. The function of the leaders is of great importance in the development and management of change in the organization through the creation of suitable atmosphere for the adoption of required transformations.

Effective leadership offers the ability to generate the strategies to convince the employees to support the set organizational changes and developments (Wilder et al., 2013). Such leaders are able to create an organizational cultures comprising of beliefs and ideals that propel the organization from a conservative to an innovative level. Transformational leadership centers on the requirement of technological advancements and values the human relations in the organization. The transformational leaders express their roles as path finders and articulate their ideas through the application of their skills. This way, the transformational leaders are skilled at ensuring organizational changes and developments that lead to innovation. Transformation leadership could also motivate workers through creating different plans, and the most excellent means of encouraging employees through a reward system.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The literature review employed 15 sources, which offered relevant research to the topic: understanding organizational behaviors in leadership. Different theories and relationships have been developed by past researchers to understand the significance and importance of organizational behavior for long term success and growth of organizations. In addition, the analysis of attributes and traits of organizational behavior leads to a better understanding of the human behavior required for reflecting leadership skills. The articles have conducted detailed research studies, which include primary as well as secondary researches, due to which the articles have provided great amount of variables for conducting our research. On the other hand, very few articles have linked the understanding of organizational behavior to refinement of leadership skills. Therefore, future studies should seek to bridge this gap through focusing on the connection between organizational behavior and the enhancement of the leadership proficiencies.

References

Bakker, A., &Schaufeli, W. (2014). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior J. Organiz. Behav., 147-154.

Hauser, L. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 9(4), 239-246. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1650863092?accountid=12085

Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. The Academy of Management Review31(2), 386–408.

Lindebaum, D., & Jordan, P. J. (2014). A critique on neuroscientific methodologies in organizational behavior and management studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 898-908.

Mayfield, C. O., & Taber, T. D. (2010). A prosocial self-concept approach to understanding organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(7), 741-763.

Meltzer, H., & Stagner, R. (1980). Understanding organizational behavior. Professional Psychology, 11(3), 457-458.

Morgeson, F. P., Aguinis, H., Waldman, D. A., & Siegel, D. (2011). Special issue call for papers: Corporate social responsibility and human resource management/organizational behavior. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 283-285.

Posner, B. Z., & Munson, J. M. (1979). The importance of values in understanding organizational behavior. Human Resource Management (Pre-1986), 18(3), 9. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/223821232?accountid=12085

Schultz, M. (2012). Constructing Identity in and around Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tudorescu, N., Zaharia, C., Zaharia, I., & Zaharia, G. C. (2010). Rationality and organizational behavior. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 5(3), 266. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA267422391&v=2.1&u=vic_liberty&it=r&p=AONE&asid=644885c642fb8e7a8d139547975af2a2

Valentim, C. R. S., Saldanha, J. A. V., & Ferasso, M. (2011). Consumer behavior and customer relationship management: Understanding the mind of the consumer as priority in orienting organizational longevity. Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management, 2(6), 293-297.

Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: Understanding humans, organizations, and social processes. Behavioral Science, 41(3), 165. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/229415378?accountid=12085

Vasu, M. L., Stewart, D. W., & Garson, G. D. (1998). Organizational Behavior and Public Management. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Wang, J., & Wong, C. (2011). Understanding organizational citizenship behavior from a cultural perspective: An empirical study within the context of hotels in Mainland China. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 845-854.

Wilder, D., Austin, J., & Casella, S. (2013). Applying behavior analysis in organizations: Organizational behavior management. Psychological Services, 202-211.