Sample Essay Paper on Civilization’s History

Civilization’s History

Part 1: For each item, fill in the missing term or terms.

  1. The May Fourth Movement looked to the October 1917 March Revolution in Russia as a model for China’s own nationalist revolution (Turner 147).
  2. Under South Africa’sApartheid system, four legally unequal racial groups included whites, Asians, blacks, and people of mixed race (Turner 213).
  3. In 1885, a group of educated Indian men formed the Indian National Congress and began to press for equality and self-government (Turner 156).
  4. In the mid–1960s, President Johnson declared an unconditional war on poverty that ended up supporting many community action programs (Turner 183).
  5. During the period of the Cultural Revolution in China, the little red book became “holy scripture” for the cadres called the Red Guards (Turner 192).
  6. Following the Civil War in America, under the Sharecropping system, blacks paid landowners about half of their crops in exchange for a cabin, land, mules, and seed (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl 361).
  7. In the 1970s, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) attempted to regulate the rate at which the two superpowers produced nuclear weapons (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl 659).
  8. In 1908, to block Serbia’s expansion in the Balkans, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, and Herzegovina (Turner 144).
  9. Legislative measures enacted under Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal included the Works Progress Administration and Agricultural Adjustment Act (Turner 164).

Part 2: Respond to each of the following with one, but no more than three complete sentences.

  1. The United Nations is enabled to intervene militarily in international conflicts. Why is this power seldom used? The United Nations has always believed in the policy of non-interventionism, and international relations have always relied on the belief that a state should as much as possible not interfere in the affairs of another state. It, therefore, requires the approval of the UN Security Council to have a military unit deployed (Wood 2).
  2. What was the concept of manifest destiny? Manifest destiny was a concept that the USA believed it was for them to expand the boundaries of their nation as the continent was sparsely populated. The United States, therefore, did not deal with any policies that required them to cease property in other continents (Turner135).
  3. What nations lent official aid to opponents in the Spanish civil war? Germany under Hitler provided support to the side of Francisco Franco who led the fascist movement (Turner 169).
  4. Who was Salvador Allende? Salvador Allende was a popularly elected president of Chile who ruled from 1908 to 1973 before being overthrown by Augusto Pinochet. (Turner 208)
  5. What countries made up the Grand Alliance during World War II, and what was the first policy they agreed upon? The main aim of the Grand Alliance was to counter the growing influence of Louis XIV in France which comprised Austria, Prussia, England, and the Dutch Republic. The first policy they formulated was the treaty of Utrecht in Spain, which ended Spain’s war of succession and shifted power significantly in England’s favor (Turner 21).
  6. What factors shaped social and political developments in postwar America? The manifest destiny that Americans believed in was one of the factors that shaped their political outlook as it led them to believe that it was not necessary to conquer land abroad. The industrialization of the country was also a factor that influenced its view on international affairs (Turner 137).
  7. In 1906, what was Iran’s Majlis? The Majilis was a parliamentary council set up in Iran in 1906, whose powers exceeded that of the king according to their constitution (Suwaidi 49).
  8. How and why did East Pakistan become Bangladesh? Bangladesh was formed in 1971, it had initially existed as a colony of Pakistan, however, the feelings of neglect formed in the citizens led to revolts in the 1960s (Turner 196).
  9. In the early nineteenth century, why did Germany decide to build up its naval fleet? How did Britain respond to this? After the Franco –Prussian war, Germany had emerged as the strongest state in Western Europe and therefore decided to build its naval fleet to rival that of Britain. Britain took this activity of Germany as outright intimidation and an attempt to bully it as it had done to a weakened France (Turner 144).
  10. What was the substance of the Brezhnev Doctrine? The Brezhnev Doctrine was drafted in 1968 by Leonid Brezhnev and stated that the Soviet Union reserved the right to intervene in any socialist country should the need arise (Turner 182).

Part 3: Respond to each item in a complete, concise paragraph.

1.) What factors were involved in the spread of World War I into the Middle East?

The Arab world had been divided into factions as they were under the rule of the British and the French. The war caused them to revolt as they saw that the Europeans were not united. Prince Faisal declared the independence of the Arab world and named himself king a move, which resulted in British troops being sent to Iraq and French troops in Syria to quell the uprisings. Due to the alliance Turkey had with Germany, it was necessary for Turkey to provide troops for Germany, which led to the defeat and occupation of the Ottoman Empire by Britain, France, Italy, and Greece (Turner 155).

2.) Following World War I, what provoked uncertainties in Western philosophy and religion?

World War I significantly changed the views of Western philosophy as it caused there to be a split in ideologies between those who believed in Communism and those who believed in capitalism. The loss by Germany also led to the disregard for religion as they adopted a focus on scientific development and there was the belief that it could not correspond with religion. The war, therefore, caused a decline in the emphasis on religion and strongly divided the western hemisphere along with these two schools of thought (Turner 95).

3.) Explain the Cocoa holdups and their significance to African nationalism.

The Cocoa trade was a vital part of the Ghanaian economy; however, it was under the control of the British monopolist companies, which means that they would determine the price that they would buy the product at. These price wars are what led to the hold-ups started by the African farmers. The farmers opted to deal directly with the chocolate manufacturers instead of going through the British middlemen and were the factor that led to the independence movement led by Kwame Nkrumah. The independence movement in Ghana inspired the African nationalism movement in other parts of the continent (Turner 210).

Work Cited

Kennedy, David, Cohen Lizabeth and Piehl Mel. The Brief American Pageant: A History of the Republic, Volume II: Since 1865. Massachusets: Cengage, 2012.

Suwaidi, Jamal. Iran and the Gulf: A Search for Stability. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Centre, 1996.

Turner, Robert G. World civilizations.

Wood, Michael. The Principle of Non-Intervention in Contemporary International Law. Essex: Chatham. 2007. 1-8.