Sample Essay Paper on Islam and the End of History

The Major Arguments of the Author

The author portrays how the westerners assert that Islamic societies have been oppressed by their religion and most often governed inhumanly. As a result, Islamic countries have remained backwards compared to the secular enlightened democracies. He brings out his arguments clearly by exploring the purported end of Islamic history (Milner, 2003). He cleverly uses his scholarly knowledge to bring out the differences between Christianity as practiced in western societies and Islamic faith as professed by Muslim societies. The author lets the readers understand that if history was to end due to political order, it will need more than westerners message on maximizing the best from human nature.

Critical Commentary on Stated and Unstated Assumptions and Assertions

Most of the issues revolve around religion. The westerners relate most flaws and problems faced by Muslim societies as the product of Islam. They are proud about their governments and societies because of practicing secularism. The west has in the past attempted to provide protection to the minority religions through secularism, but it has often been futile. Muslim societies have historically demonstrated ecumenical and humane character than what their western critics acknowledge. Islamic ecumenicalism has been more effective in protecting religious minorities as opposed to western secularism (Cook, 2010). Although the task of measuring the cultural differences between the Islam and the West is a difficult task, the difference is quite narrower than it is assumed. Islam is a civilized religion as opposed to the assertion that it is a fundamentalist movement. It is a tradition that varies from one Islamic country to the other, but united by a common faith that is more humane than what the westerners hold. The westerners hardly acknowledge the fact that their societies have not been able to live in accordance with their liberal myths. The Islamic societies only lag behind a few miles technologically and socially compared to the western nations. The biggest question is which path will lead to quality life for the ordinary citizens? The western path does not provide the answer to all questions as the westerners make us believe. Islamic values therefore need to be seriously considered.

Critical Commentary on the Type of Evidence, Data, Theoretical and Philosophical Arguments Advanced by the Author in Support of his Arguments

The Western liberal democracy enables its societies to have government accountability, openness, high economic productivity, and popular participation. However, the pluralism practiced by westerners has been the contributing factor to vices, such as exploitation, fascism, and racism. Human beings should seek consultation from the Islam when seeking the worst traits from human nature whether it is materialism, racism, Marxism, Nazism or drug addiction. Values and morals have rapidly changed in western countries for the last two decades due to technological revolution and progress in their societies. The Islamic countries that are going through similar changes will follow suit. A good example is the premarital sex that was highly disregarded in the west until the end of II World War. Laws were there to prohibit sex before marriage, which is recorded in the books. Today, premarital sex is practiced with or without the consent of parents (Bhutto, 2008). The westerners look down on Muslim societies with regards to women status since the issue of gender is a problem in Muslim nations. Islamic rules have disadvantaged the female, leading to segregation in the public gatherings. As a result, women have remained a marginalized group, especially in serving governmental and political offices. In most western societies, daughters were not allowed to inherit properties if the family had sons. Islamic law on the other hand considers girls in the allocation of properties. Women were not allowed to vote in most western nations for many decades until twentieth century. Contrary to this, women in Islamic nations, such as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq have been casting votes for many decades. In addition, the United States of America, which is the most influential and largest western country has never elected a woman as a president. In contrary, two popular Muslim countries, Bangladesh and Pakistan, have previously elected women as their prime ministers (Merheb, 1994). Although Muslim countries lag behind in women liberalization, they are far much ahead in empowering the female.

The Logical Development of Arguments Advanced by the Author throughout his Writing Work

The author maintains a remarkable logical development throughout his work. He provides his audiences with adequate information on the subject matter. He uses his writing works wisely in rallying support for the Muslim societies. His piece of writing is educative and informative, especially for students seeking understanding of the history of Islam. His volume elicits debate and whips up powerful sentiments, anger, and passion among the reader (Hitti, 2001). The author’s collection is among the few that is rich in scholarly knowledge thus a bonus for those interested in his scholarly endeavors. The author can be commended for ensuring that the relevant correspondence is debated under each subject matter in the chapters. The author’s analytical abilities and style of presenting facts provokes his admirers and critics to give comments on his claims. His collection is a must read for those who consider Islamic history and anybody seeking to understand Islamic in details. In my own opinion, he maintains logical consistency in the ability to create controversy on issues that he explores as well as defense for issues affecting the Arab world and his overall Islamic faith.

Well Developed Documentation, Supporting Evidence, Data and Consistency to Show that I Agree With the Author

Historically, civilization and religion have been resistant to factors that led to worst interludes of racism, barbarism, and violence within societies in the twentieth century. Islam has been an ideal ground for democracy to thrive. The Islamic religion cannot be associated in any way with vices, such as fascism, communism or Nazism unlike some non-Islamic religions. Muslims have in the past been criticized for failing to produce the best but nobody congratulates them for the ethics of averting the worst. Islam has throughout been resistant towards racism. Koran deals with the existing ethnic differences as well as the national conflicts aggressively. The standards laid down by Koran promote morality and religious principles; the content of individual’s character trait according to Martin Luther King or piety according to the Koran. Mosques have never been segregated based on race unlike Christian churches (Hitti, 2001). Since it is not racial, the Islamic history is not associated with obliterating people. There are claims that Islam generates political violence to a great extent compared to the westerners but the westerners generate street violence more compared to the Islam. With regards to quality life, the ordinary citizens are better off in excesses of Islamic societies as opposed to the excesses in liberal states. Liberal states may have low political tensions but the social violence experienced there reaches the crisis level. In resolving modernity issues, Muslim societies are going back to the indigenous, modernism, and traditional core values. Countries, such as Saudi Arabia are reviewing their legal systems as well as other Islamic features that trace back to 14 centuries.

Political movements in nations, such as Afghanistan and Egypt are pursuing the revivalist objectives. Similar sacred is being practiced in some Christian sects in America, middle, and Southeast Asia. Islam has remained steadfast in resisting the destructive forces of any kind in the twentieth century in the entire world in its system of values. While democracy is selecting the rulers in a systematic way, human governance ensures that citizens are treated with respect. The current revival in Islamic countries is meant to accomplish greater humaneness. Iran is Islamic and indications are that liberalization and theocracy have taken a central role despite the country being few years from independence. Saudi Arabia has already embraced the concept called shura, as its guideline to the democratic path. The historical distance between Islamic societies and the west with regards to treating women is insignificant. Islamic is the sole religion in the world that was established on the basis of a businessperson engaging in a commercial partnership with a woman. Koran, the Islamic Holy Scripture, contains numerous inventions from Prophet Muhammad that act as a guide to the Islamic religion. Although westerners associate the flaws and problems of Muslim to Islam religion, there is no difference when it comes to separating the state and the church in Muslim and non-Muslim societies. In America, for instance, the constitution provided for segregation of the state and the church but the politics there is not purely secular. Western Europe also has a relatively higher number of Muslims but no single appointment has so far been made in the cabinet office in Germany, France, and Britain (Bhutto, 2008). Islamic societies have been in the forefront in protecting religious minorities as opposed to western secularism. The biggest question is which path will lead to quality life for the ordinary citizens because the western path does not hold the answer to all questions as the westerners make us believe.






Bhutto, B. (2008). Reconciliation: Islam, democracy, and the West. New York: Harper.

Cook, M. (2010). The new Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hitti, P. K. (2001). Islam and the West: A historical cultural survey. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.

Merheb, N. (1994). Women’s rights in the Islamic world : the effect of Islamic law. (University Of Oslo.) University Of Oslo.

Milner, A. (2003). Region, Security and the Return of History. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.