Sample Essay Paper on The foundations of homeland Security

Homeland Security

The foundations of homeland Security

The vision of the homeland security arm of national administration concerns guaranteeing a state that is safe. The 3 main conceptions that constitute the basis of the state homeland safety plan meant to attain the mission of the DHS include safety and pliability, as well as customs and exchange. As a result, these major conceptions steer extensive areas of the DHS operations that are described as the mission of the department. The task of the department is venture-wide. The tasks, together with their related aims, explain comprehensively what it implies to safeguard and take action, make progress, and ensure safety, as well as ensuring flexibility and facilitating  customs and trade. The main purpose of homeland safety is to keep up the safety of the country. The state’s strategy for homeland security is among the comprehensive efforts of describing a domestic community policy scheme (Purpura, 2007).

The role of intelligence and counterterrorism activities among federal agencies

As a result of the rapidly evolving assaults, intelligence and, in particular, distribution of information has become essential to fulfilling homeland security. In a state of minimal budget, intelligence is of greater value in permitting effectual targets of limited resources. The intelligence and counterterrorism activity integrates the operations, tactics, methodology as well as strategies that the law enforcement agencies take on to deal with terrorist assaults. If terrorism forms the wider part of a revolt, counterterrorism is supposed to also form part of a counter revolt doctrine. The key role of counterterrorism activities includes both the discovery of probable terror acts and responding to associated events. Since the 2001 attacks, counterterrorism activities have become a major element of the general objective of the law enforcement agencies (Karmon, 2002). Areas that are regarded as particularly susceptible, including the financial district, have been placed under regular police surveillance and other tactical groups have been prepared in case of the need for action. As the assaults affecting homeland continue evolving beyond terror attacks, so too should the DHS utilization of information sharing. With the use of current models, technologies, as well as the lessons taught by counterterrorism, the department is offered a chance of beginning to establish information dissemination abilities that are dedicated towards fighting several other pressing assaults, particularly the illicit operations along the border as well as cyber-threats. With the intelligence activities, the DHS utilizes a noteworthy number of sensors and several staff member along the state’s borders gathering sufficient amounts of information on a daily basis (Koschade, 2006).

Types of and practice of cybercrime

Cyber crimes can be depicted as criminal acts that involve the workstation and network technology. In a number of cases, the computers have been employed for the purpose of committing crime and in other cases, it has been the object of felony. Criminal acts that involve the utilization of information or electronic elements to commit crimes are included under the scope of cyber crime (Wall, 2007). The example of cyber crimes include;

  1. Hacking – this is when someone attempts or gains access to an information system without permission. Hacking is considered an offense even if there is lack of observable harm of the equipment, for the reason that it is an incursion of information that is confidential. There are different kinds of hackers including white hat hackers. These consider that information dissemination is good and that they have the responsibility of sharing their expertise through facilitating information accessibility. There are also the black hat hackers. These are accountable for causing harm after interference. Another type is the gray hat hackers.
  2. Spamming – this involves sending of spontaneous massive and business-related messages other the internet. Even though it irritates, it is not unlawful unless it results to damages like congestion of the network or it disrupts services of the subscribers.
  • Cyber pornography – this mostly affects the female sexes and children, as they are normally victims of sexual harassment through the internet.
  1. Phishing – this is an illegally deceitful way of attaining sensitive information like the username, secret codes as well as credit card information by assuming to be an honest entity in an online communication.
  2. Software privacy – this is unlawful duplication and dissemination of software for commercial or private use. This is regarded as a type of violation of a copy right and a breach of a license accord. Because the rightful user is not a party to the license accord, it is hard realize remedies (Wall, 2007).

Border security and immigration issues

The issue of migration and border safety are significant to the nation. Safeguarding the country’s borders and reformation of the migration system of the U.S remains a significant policy discussion. The northern as well as the southern borders of the U.S face several issues every day, such as non-citizens unlawfully entering the U.S to stay and seek employment; transnational wrongdoers who try to smuggle in weaponry as well as substances; activists whose aim is to disrupt the lives of others as well as human trafficking. It is therefore essential to secure a nation’s borders and it is the duty of the state to make sure that the DHS has the resources it requires to safeguard the borders. Border security and immigration issues are not just essential for homeland safety, but also necessary for ensuring economic development. Given that the American neighbours, including Canada, as well as Mexico, are the state’s major export markets, it is significant to ensure that the state’s policies allows for legal transportation of products so as to stop the unlawful transportation of business items.  Regardless of Mexico’s enhanced safety efforts, the US has much to do to effectively protect its borders and such measures should be taken as part of the immigration reformation accord. The goals for a safe border can be attained with a flexible, cost-effective, and receptive boots on the ground strategy (Lakoff & Ferguson, 2006).

Lack of will is what can prevent a nation from protecting the private property rights of individuals living along the border. The US is a nation of immigrants and would very much benefit from lawful immigration. The state should implement reforms that would allow secure, orderly lawful immigration process and depress undocumented immigration. The government ought to find reasonable solutions to the migration issue. These who are willing to contribute to the economy should be given a chance to do so, and the lawful immigration procedure should not be burdensome to such people. The nation ought to make certain the imposition of effective immigration regulations. The state should ensure greater border safety and the creation of a fence to help in securing the borders. Businesses that intentionally go against the law and recruit undocumented immigrants should be penalized. Employers should be able to access the effectual tools for the purpose of determining whether an employee is in the country lawfully and is entitled to be employed (Lakoff & Ferguson, 2006).

How the DHS has changed from its inception in 2001 to what it has become today

From the time of its inception in the year 2001, the DHS has taken major steps for the purpose of enhancing the state’s ability to safeguard against terror campaign; protect the nation’s boundaries; ensure proper imposition of the immigration regulations; preserve and protect cyberspace; reckon with, deal with, and get over calamities; and to get better and enhance homeland security venture. The DHS has transformed in how it operates. It has been working collaboratively with the global associates, forming unions that are intended to strengthen aviation security, ensuring information sharing as well as securing international supply chain. The department introduced novel risk-based security guidelines through pre-screening of commuters; exploitation of the present day technology as well as educating the airfield security together with the law enforcement staff to be able to determine the acts that are associated with violence. Additionally, the DHS has continued to improve and modernize its inspection and selection abilities; make better the nationwide network of union centres and give support to the state and local associates through educating them, offering technical help and granting financial support (Coose, 2002).

The department has also expanded the “if you see something, say something” civic responsiveness campaign through collaborations with sporting teams and confederations, transport organizations, the privately owned organizations, and municipalities as well as associates and universities. For the purpose of securing and managing the state’s borders, the department, has continually deployed historic levels of staff, new technology and resources to the borders for the purpose of reducing the flow of illicit substances, funds and weapons. It has also accelerated legal dealings and travel by employing trusted traveller together with trader schemes. DHS also managed to eliminate a number of the illicit aliens from the country. Since 2001, DHS has continued to develop and become stronger. This has been made possible because it attained its veterans recruiting goal of 50,000 workers with veterans comprising of about 25% of the civilian staff (Coose, 2002).

How the relationships between the DHS and other police force and intelligence agencies have transformed over the years.

As a result of the terrorist attacks in 2001, there has been a transformation in the relationships of the DHS and other law enforcement and intelligence agencies. At the federal level, the DHS has been established; the link between law enforcement and intelligence has almost been eliminated, a number of the law enforcement institutions are being operated like the intelligence organizations. The effect of these transformations has been intense at the state level such that the state governments have been given the key duty in homeland security. Established mainly for the purpose of protecting the citizens of America from terrorism and other threats, the DHS together with other law agencies have strengthen homeland security to effectively alleviate and protect against the emerging threats. The DHS also includes the solid existence of the Department of Justice (DOJ) as well as the Federal Bureau of investigation (FBI), whose duty in conducting terror campaign investigations has resulted in the detention of numerous persons on terror-associated charges (Purpura, 2007).  . DHS placed into service the National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS), through which under this the department has been synchronizing with other federal agencies to provide exhaustive alerts to community when the government receives information concerning particular probable terrorist threats. DHS has maintained a strong support for fusion centres working together with other agencies to investigate threats and distribute information. The department has also been working jointly with the state as well as other major urban region fusion centres to establish effective privacy policies as well as private civil rights and privacy law training to fusion centre staff (Coose, 2002).

The current structure of the DHS and other agencies protecting the United States from internal and external threats

The DHS established in for the purpose of responding to a national crisis, was introduced as an agency whose role is directly accessible by the American society. It is two hundred and twenty workers are fast to feel the pain of public reproach. Within the department, is the Transport Security Administration (TSA), which as has greatly progressed, particularly in the sector of aviation inspection. About fifty eight thousand employees of this department spend working. Additionally, a number of programs have been established for the purpose of supporting the state as well as the local effort to enhance the security of the transport sector. Also within the DHS, numerous departments and agencies take part in its mission. The state’s armed forces operate at the frontlines of the department through the degradation of al-Qaeda’s ability of attacking the US and targets globally (Coose, 2002). The DHS also comprise of the solid existence of the division of Justice and the FBI which are responsible for the assessment of terrorism. The transformation of the complete state intelligence aspects under one executive is still developing subsequent to the establishment of the DNI agency. A number of programs have been introduced in order to facilitate information dissemination. Given that DHS is directly accountable for the protection of the federal’s facilities and networks, the department facilitates this through a number of programs and schemes that provides information and relevant advice concerning threats and best practices. The department has a cyber security program that is growing rapidly. The Suggested three (3) changes to the current structure of the DHS include the development of a department whose key duty includes the establishment of strategies that ensures the nation is prevented from future attacks. Another suggested change is that the DHS should try to recuperate through the open exchange of competing as well as contrasting ideas. The department also ought to introduce a forum that involves the public in some of its operation. The three suggested changes are aimed at improving the services of the DHS (Coose, 2002).

Characteristics of homeland security that the United States needs to address in the immediate future and why

The efforts of the homeland security since its establishment have mainly focused on enhancing response abilities and on policy. Much minimal stress has been placed on what it implies to be an efficient homeland security leader, or on methodically establishing those leaders. It has been uncertain how to institutionalize thoughts concerning terrorism. This is a concern that ought to be addressed by the US in the immediate future in order to improve the operations of the homeland security. Homeland security is mainly concerned with terrorist attacks in the US. Activists could be the people of the US or aliens acting in collaboration with others, individually or on behalf of an unreceptive nation. There has been a difficulty with the terror description of homeland safety. It does not entirely signify the behaviour that is evident under the title of homeland safety. The consideration that has been given to terror campaigns since the attacks in 2001 has been undermining the American disaster awareness scheme. The US therefore in the immediate future needs to focus on the definite threats as well as on the skills required to reckon on such threats. The local governments have been less eager to take care of their part in homeland security as a terror attack banner, leaving the massive of the task to the federal government. In the immediate future, the US should focus more on homeland security both at the local and state level (Purpura, 2007).

The existing roadblocks that are preventing the DHS from addressing these top concerns

Since its establishment, the DHS has been working conscientiously to ensure safety of the US from terrorist attacks. In doing this, the department has faced a number of roadblocks which includes, coordinating across the twenty two agencies that are initially existing, reporting to a huge number of congressional commissions and having to interact with the US society in a way that continually tests the balance between safety and privacy. Some have pointed to these barriers as proof of non-functional department that is not able to efficiently protect the nation. The department is also facing a number of new roadblocks that requires an evolution of its main concerns, structures as well as the mission. In a way, the nature of the present budget presents an exceptional opportunity of transforming how the department functions. Limited funds will initiate hard decisions concerning the kind of programs and ability to finance or cut, yet in the end such decisions could be essential to ensure the department’s future utility and health (Coose, 2002).


The role cyber terrorism could play in future attacks against the U.S and its allies. And the description of what is considered to be the largest cyber threat(s) to the nation

The greatest hazard that the DHS should guard against in the future is likely to come from the cyberspace. This threat is likely to become more intense as information and communication technology keeps on evolving at a faster rate and the state together with the non-state actors are gradually more concentrate on cyber-abilities.the threats presented by cyber terrorism extends not just to the significant infrastructure schemes but also to the state’s economy. Any endeavour to strengthen the state’s defences against cyber terrorism requires a strong scheme for the distribution of cyber terrorism data and intellect. Cyber terrorism poses a threat for all the aspects of the government (Karmon, 2002).  This is a description of what is regarded as the largest cyber threat to the nation. In addition, an assault against any system of the government could start off from the same source as an interruption attempt that is directed at Personal Company and may use same methodology and signatures. In accordance with this, information distribution across and between the government and other organizations is essential. If numerous sectors can work collaboratively to make sure information is distributed to the right individuals when necessary and is actionable, assaults can be minimized.

Whilst information distribution is considered to do much in creating cyber defences, the DHS should look for ways of reducing the assaults that are initiated. The groups that comprise the significant infrastructure are the columns that are supporting the US. If they are taken advantage of, US, would cease to operate effectively. A number of the infrastructure divisions are susceptible to cyber terrorism as a result of their central systems. This therefore implies that these divisions are comprised of computers and applications that carry out the main operations in the provision of vital services and products are part of the state’s essential infrastructure and needs to be protected from a number of threats that exists in cyber space today (Lewis, 2006).


















Coose, M. (2002). Department of homeland security.

Karmon, E. (2002). The role of intelligence in counter-terrorism. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 14(1), 119-139.

Koschade, S. (2006). A social network analysis of Jemaah Islamiyah: The applications to counterterrorism and intelligence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(6), 559-575.

Lakoff, G., & Ferguson, S. (2006). The framing of immigration. The Rockridge Institute.

Lewis, T. G. (2006). Critical infrastructure protection in homeland security: defending a networked nation. John Wiley & Sons.

Purpura, P. P. (2007). Terrorism and homeland security: an introduction with applications. The Butterworth-Heinemann homeland security series. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Wall, D. (2007). Cybercrime: The transformation of crime in the information age (Vol. 4). Polity.