The Paper focuses on schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Schizophrenia has
a disorder refers to a neurodevelopmental disorder with problems related to social interaction,
repetitive behavior, verbal and non-verbal communication among patients. The signs of the
disorders have their visibilities as early as five years during the development of the child. The
symptoms continue to develop in a gradual manner. Some of the children become lucky in
reaching their development milestones through reasonable rates; they may later suffer from
regression. The criteria for the diagnostic process should occur as early as three years of
Critiquing the Schizophrenia
According to Dziwota, Stepulak, Włoszczak-Szubzda, & Olajossy (2018), schizophrenia
has a delibating influence on the mental status of individuals across different populations and
cultures. It affects 1% of individuals from different cultures. An equal number of men and
women suffer from the disorder. However, women tend to suffer from schizophrenic symptoms
later than men. Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that takes time for psychologists in the
international community to understand its causes and general impacts. However, the diagnostic
procedures used for the disorder originates from standard symptoms that have been developed
over time. Schizophrenia comprises of both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms
as derived from the article are the ones that include hallucinations and delusions. The patient
becomes paranoid about a specific situation. A patient may hear several voices that come from
anywhere. They may confuse reality with delusions.
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The various negative symptoms comprise of poor pleasure concerning the environment
surrounding an individual. Individuals tend to lose interest due to the mental instability they
possess derived from the symptoms of the disorder. Patients also lack the will to participate in
normal activities. This shows that anyone suffering from the disorder may have withdrawal
social symptoms from family members and friends. Sometimes, a patient may become violent
and may not want to see the family members and friends. They may think that it is the loved ones
that are causing them to become unhappy at any particular moment. In relation to the above, they
see them be enemies and they try as much as possible to separate themselves from them. It has
become hard for patients to deal with the issue due to the complex status of the disorder.
Based on the symptoms described by Dziwota, Stepulak, Włoszczak-Szubzda, &
Olajossy (2018), anyone suffering from the disorder may control the symptoms. The major
approach they need to undertake may include focusing on their healing process. This means
seeing a mental expert during the early developmental stages of the disorder. Patients have to
discover early symptoms of schizophrenia before they are sure that they suffer from the disorder.
An expertise in behavioral psychology and mental analysis may be in the best position to
monitor the possibility of an individual suffering from such a disorder. When one fails to receive
an early diagnosis, it becomes hard for them to get well soon. The disorder may become severe
and it may affect the general perception, though, and behavior of the patient.
Schizophrenia as a Neurocognitive Disorder
Kennedy & Adolphs, (2012) reiterates that the key neurocognitive disorder discussed
includes schizophrenia. Schizophrenia refers to mental disorders with abnormal social,
behavioral traits and the aspect of failing to understand reality. The symptoms underlined by the
disorder comprises of unclear/confused thoughts, false beliefs, less social interaction/emotional
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expression, decreased motivation and hearing of unknown voices. Some of the individuals that
have schizophrenia tend to possess mental problems such as substance abuse disorders, high
depressive sickness, and anxiety disorders (Kennedy & Adolphs, 2012). Schizophrenic
symptoms beginning during the youthful age and may take a long time to undergo elimination.
Causes and Rates of the Schizophrenic Disorder
De Rubeis, et al., (2014) argues that the main causes of schizophrenia disorder include
genetic and environmental factors. The use of cannabis, maternal age, poor pregnancy nutrition,
and infections among others serve as environmental causes. The genetic causes originate from
unique genetic variants. Approximately less than 1% of individuals suffer from schizophrenia
during their life. The total figure adding up includes about 23 million people in the world. The
disorder affects the males more as compared to the females. Approximately a fifth of the patients
recovers completely after undergoing diagnosis and treatment. The key causes of the
schizophrenic disorder may originate from long-term poverty, unemployment and a state of
homelessness. The patients suffering from the diseases have a likelihood of having a life
expectancy of less than 20 to 25 years than the normal individuals (De Rubeis, et al., 2014). The
key reason revolves around the fact that most of the patients end up committing suicide.
The risk factors as discussed above have their origin from the long history of families
with the gene carrying the disorder, and also the contribution of the environment towards
escalating the disorder. As much as scientists have tried to explain the above factor; others have
generated research stating that the hypothesis levied on the disorder may lack some truth. Some
people who have family members with the disorder may lack the likelihood of suffering from
schizophrenia. Some of the scientists have linked the genetic composition of individuals to
increase the likelihood of acquiring schizophrenia; they have eliminated the aspect of one gene
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causing the disorder. As stated above, malnutrition and problems during birth, exposure towards
viruses and psychosocial factors have a major contribution to the escalation of the disorders (De
Rubeis, et al., 2014). The various chemical reactions found in the brain involving the
neurotransmitter functions such as glutamate and dopamine play a critical role in determining the
schizophrenic causes among patients. Some link schizophrenia to problems related to faulty
brain development connections during as one grows to adulthood.
Schizophrenia Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures
Wykes, et al., (2018) states that the schizophrenic treatment and diagnosis depends on the
aspect of observed behavior, reported experiences, and reports from others with familiarity to the
patient. Sometimes, the psychological experts take into account the culture of the individuals.
The treatments related to schizophrenia still exist in limited numbers due to the complex nature
of the disorder. This is based on the approaches employed in a mental health facility towards the
aspect of dealing with the disorder. The treatment varies and includes the following:
The first treatment procedure comprises of antipsychotic treatment which involves the
daily consumption of either a pill or medication in the liquid form. The antipsychotic medication
may also include injections that a patient receives more than two times a month depending on the
nature of the disorder at any given time. Those that suffer from severe symptoms of the disorders
may receive more injections than those who suffer from early symptoms of the disorder (Wykes,
et al., 2018). The treatment may involve side effects at the beginning of the medication but tends
to go away after one gets used the medications. In most cases, the medical experts and the
patients collaborate to identify the best medication/medication combination that tends to
eliminate the disorder in the patient.
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The second treatment and therapy include the psychosocial treatment done after the
identification of the right medication by the patient and the doctor. The key techniques involve
using coping mechanisms and learning as a way to address the challenges related to
schizophrenic patients. It allows the patients acquire the capabilities to pursue their daily life
goals (may include school and career). Anyone undergoing the psychosocial treatments tends to
have fewer rates of relapses.
The last therapy and treatment comprise of the coordinated specialty care which
integrates psychosocial therapeutic mechanism, medication, family therapy, employment
services, case management and supported education to reduce schizophrenic symptoms and also
lead to the improved status of quality of life (Wykes, et al., 2018). According to many
psychological and mental experts, the disorder has less information on its causes, diagnosis, and
treatment and thus they need to undertake research to alter the prognosis and trajectory treatment
of Schizophrenia. The above may undergo achievement through a well-coordinated individual
care treatment during the early stages of the disorder. The therapy reduces the chances of long-
term disability in individuals suffering from the disorder and influences them to become
independent and live productive social lives.
Schizophrenia across Multiple Cultures
According to Dein (2017), psychiatry has struggled with cultural perception regarding
schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Different perceptions regarding schizophrenia
exists in the international cultures. The discussion of the disorder in regard to diverse cultures.
Schizophrenia is a global challenge for many individuals and it would take time for people and
organizations to understand it. The National Alliance for Mental Illness is the organization
employed in the paper for cultural comprehension of schizophrenia.
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Psychiatry has a cultural-perspective background due to its aspect of having diverse
culture and power in its different societies. The individuals with interests in psychological issues
ensure the accumulation of immense knowledge influences experts to make accurate diagnosis
and management processes. The cultural background in which individuals practice psychiatry
may assist in determining the major things that constitute psychological conditions. It may also
influence symptomatology. Many cultural differences exist when it comes to schizophrenic
delusions. The same applies to the aspect of acute psychosis. The above perspective originate
from cultural bound. An example may include cultures from the Western World and Latin
America. Individuals believe that paranoid hallucinations and delusions always originate from
intense regarding witchcraft. Many people tend to fear magical persecutions thinking that it is the
one that causes hallucinations and delusions among patients.
When it comes to regions such as Malaysia and Indonesia, hallucinations and delusions
exist from the aspect of fearing the loss of fertility. This takes place via the penis’ ascendance
into the abdomen. The above conditions are real when it comes to the cultures. Delusions consist
of physical and pain symptoms among the patients. However, the world has failed to acquire a
psychological basis for them. In the Western world, schizophrenic patients have a greater
depressive symptoms. They also have primary delusions and different thought insertions. The
developing nations tend to have a negative perception of the individuals suffering from the
disorders. Schizophrenia serves as a major problem for the developing world because people
have failed to understand its existence (Dein, 2017). Individuals continue to look at it as a
demonic possession of individuals.
Satanic possession among individuals is the one that causes mental imbalances. It is the
one influences individuals to suffer from psychosis. The diagnosis and treatment of the disorder
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may be undertaken through punishments and infliction of pain. The situation may see prayers
and casting spells to heal the disorder which is not the right tool of diagnosis and development.
Due to this, it becomes more prevalent in the developing world for patients to experience many
acoustic and visual hallucinations as compared to the Western world. Racial and cross-cultural
differences may have a unique status in determining the symptoms of Schizophrenia. It has an
impact on the general diagnostic processes.
Schizophrenia has an effect on impairing effective communications. Individuals may
provide answers to in an irrelevant way. Speech may also comprise of individuals giving many
words that are meaningless. Patients also have abnormal behavior of the motor. This may exist in
several ways. People have unpredictable agitation and silliness. Behavior lacks focus on the goal.
People resist instructions and have bizarre posture. People may lack a complete response. They
may possess excessive movement. The other factor is negative symptoms among patients. It
causes lack of ability in functioning in a normal manner. Patients may use prayers to deal with
the issue when it comes to the developing nations. The western world may use counseling and
diagnosis in dealing with the issue.
As derived from the above discussion, schizophrenia disorder has many symptoms
associated with it. The symptoms are either emotional or behavioral. The symptoms vary from
one patient to another. However, it involves factors such as hallucinations and delusions.
Delusions serve as the first symptoms of the disorder. Individuals have false beliefs which are
not real. An example may include an individual thinking that one harasses him. Some people
may think that comments are directed towards them. Delusions exist in most individuals that
suffer from schizophrenia. The second symptom is hallucinations. They include hearings and
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visions that individuals have that are not real. An individual suffering from the hallucinations
may be talking to oneself and this may seem confuse individuals (Dierkhising, Lane, & Natsuaki,
2014). Disorganized thinking may serves as another major symptom for the disorder.
In relation to the comprehension given to the different cultures, it is important to focus on
the existence of the disorders. Schizophrenia may be treated through looking at the causes and
impact of the disorder on the patients. The developing world and the western nations should
develop the right frameworks for dealing with the disorder (Wykes, et al., 2018). It means that
experts have to sit down and create capacity relating to the disorder. An organization such as the
National Alliance for Mental Illness should ensure that it works to create solutions for the
disorder. It should also include the aspect of expanding to establish capacity among patients in
the country in relation to cultural diversity.
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De Rubeis, S., He, X., Goldberg, A., Poultney, C., Samocha, K., Cicek, A., & Singh, T. (2014).
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Dein, S. (2017). Recent Work on Culture and Schizophrenia: Epidemiological and
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Dziwota, E., Stepulak, M., Włoszczak-Szubzda, A., & Olajossy, M. (2018). Social functioning
and the quality of life of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Annals of Agricultural
and Environmental Medicine, 25(1),, 50-55.
Kennedy, D., & Adolphs, R. (2012). The social brain in psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Trends in cognitive sciences, 16(11),, 559-572.
Wykes, T., Csipke, E., Williams, P., Koeser, L., Nash, S., Rose, D., & McCrone, P. (2018).
Improving patient experiences of mental health inpatient care: a randomised controlled
trial. Psychological medicine, 48(3), , 488-497.