Sample Health Care Essay on Models For Urolithiasis In Animals

The origin of urolithiasis remains to be a mystery for urologists who have depended on the
collection of urine throughout to assist in a therapy that helps in the reduction of the disease in
animals. Urolithiasis mainly occurs when the balance between promoters and crystallization
inhibitors is compromised in the urine. Amid the efforts undertaken to prevent and cure this
disease, there has been little progress noted over the years. In order to understand the
pathogenesis of the formation of stone, more animal models need to be developed. Urologists
have depended on various vertebrae and invertebrate models in the venture to understand the
stone formation and create a medication that may help in preventing the growth of the disease in
According to Khan, and Aslam (148), animal models for urolithiasis may be categorized
into three groups, which include chemical-induced urolithiasis models, diet-induced models, and
minor surgical models (Khan, and Aslam 148). Under the chemically induced models, the first
model is of the ethylene glycol induction model in rats, which suggests that the stones formed in
animal kidneys are made of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. This model helps urologists
in the study of the origin of crystal deposition in kidneys by conducting experiments on rats. The
model has been able to prove that the formation of crystal deposits in the kidney is as a result of
the administration of ethylene glycol in rats. In an experiment, urologists kept male rats in a lab

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and administered to them an ethylene glycol high diet for a specific period. They discovered that
the administration of ethylene glycol in rats under laboratory conditions resulted in more
deposition of calcium and fluoride solids in the kidneys (Khan, and Aslam 148). There are more
crystal deposits when the levels of ethylene glycol and higher. When rats were induced with
lower quantities of ethylene glycol, their crystal formation in kidneys was reduced substantially
depending on the amount of the ethylene administered to them. Urolithiasis can also be treated
by giving the rats more tap water and rat chow together with a high lactose diet containing
protein, fiber, and minerals. A high lactose diet can also be administered jointly with little
ethylene glycol in drinking water.
In humans, the diet-induced model observes that the administration of a standard measure
of glycolic acid or calcium and fluoride into the normal diet leads to the production of more
calculi within the shortest time possible. The model suggests that diets that are high in calcium
levels lead to the formation of calculi leading to the formation of crystals in the kidney (Martins,
and Aline, et al. 380). An experiment conducted on adult human beings shows that diets with
higher amounts of glycol acid, calcium, and fluoride contributed to the faster crystallization
because deposits of pulverized calculi, manganese oxide, oxalate, and calcium were found in the
kidneys. An Addition of high quantities of glycolic acid to the regular diet can cause more
deposition of crystals within four weeks. After four weeks, the condition has fully developed into
urolithiasis. Therefore, the model suggests that foods have low quantities of glycol acid to help
reduce cases of urolithiasis. The model also finds that diets with high calcium and fluoride levels
promote the formation and deposition of solids in the kidney of rats. Therefore, all diets should
have low levels of glycolic acid, calcium, and fluoride to help prevent urolithiasis in animals.

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The best model to manage urolithiasis in animals should provide the characteristics of
rapid induction, preventive measures, and the rate of reproduction. A model should also provide
the kind of medication that can be used to cure the disease in animals (Tzou, David, et al. 447).
The most effective model of urolithiasis in animals is the Ethylene glycol administration model,
which shows that the induction of ethylene glycol acid in the animal body speeds up stone
formation in the kidneys. Stone deposits of calcium, oxalate, and phosphate were found to be in
large numbers in the animals that are induced with calculi. The model provides a way of
reduction of this disease in animals by using the Unex supplement to lower the levels of oxalate,
calcium, and phosphate deposits in the kidney significantly compared to all other models. The
amount of serum uric acid and urea increases when animals take in large amounts of Ethylene
glycol acid. However, these components are lowered by the administration of Urex and standard
drug cystone in animals, and the volume of urine was increased through the same method
compared to other models of urolithiasis. The level of basicity in urine is also reduced faster by
the use of this treatment model compared to other models here. In conclusion, the administration
of Urex to animals with urolithiasis is found to be the most effective model of treatment
compared to other models of urolithiasis. This conclusion is done after a comparative experiment
among the various models of urolithiasis in animals.

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Works cited

Gomase, Pravin Vasantrao, and Sunil P. Pawar. "UROLITHIASIS (KIDNEY STONES)
Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9.4 (2019): 726-737.
Golshan, Shabnam, et al. "Service quality and urolithiasis patient adherence." International
journal of health care quality assurance (2019).
Khan, Aslam. "In vitro and in vivo models for the study of urolithiasis." Urologia Journal 85.4
(2018): 145-149.
Martins, Aline A., et al. "Probiotic Prato cheese consumption attenuates development of renal
calculi in animal model of urolithiasis." Journal of functional foods 49 (2018): 378-383.
Tzou, David T., et al. "Animal Models to Study Urolithiasis." Animal Models for the Study of
Human Disease. Academic Press, 2017. 419-443.