Thank you, Johnson, for putting forward such an objective discussion about chronic
kidney disease. I am pleased by the organization of your work and the detailed discussions of
various concepts. Indeed healthcare providers are concerned by the significant rise of kidney
conditions, which involves losing kidney functions over time. According to the National Kidney
Foundation (2017), CKD's diagnosis and staging rely on the level of albuminuria and GFR,
which is determined using the CKD-EPI formula. An interesting point of this discussion is how
you elaborate on the crucial laboratory tests to monitor. Laboratory specialists examine the levels
of albuminuria, sodium, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphate, urea, pH balance, GFR, and
lipids, to determine a patient's kidneys functionality. Besides this description, you present a valid
explanation of CKD and angiotensin II and Proteinuria's connection. I agree with you that the
angiotensin II receptor blockers and the presence of excess proteins in the urine play a significant
role in advancing CKD (Mayo Clinic, 2019). Angiotensin II constricts the blood vessels resulting
in a pressure build-up in the blood vessels causing a higher peripheral resistance and venous
return. Consequently, blood pressure goes up. Constricted blood vessels imply limited blood
supply in the kidney and decreased GFR that causes a decrease in urine output. On the other
hand, proteinuria is predictive of renal damage and progressive problems of the kidney.
However, proteinuria is common when kidney damage is a result of vascular or glomerular
Another valuable aspect of your discussion is the interrelation of CKD with other body
systems. Healthcare providers are cautious about the im the gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary,
and reproductive systems (Mayo Clinic, 2019). CKD affects the cardiopulmonary system by
causing a fluid overload linked with pulmonary edema and metabolic acidosis, which causes
Kussmaul's breathing. CKD also affects the gastrointestinal system by disrupting the retention of
metabolic acid and waste components in the blood. Lastly, CKD affects the reproductive system
by causing ovary and testes dysfunctions. This disruption leads to sexual dysfunctions,
amenorrhea, decreased libido, infertility, and menorrhagia.
I look forward to more of your constructive posts as we cover the course.
Mayo Clinic. (2019). Chronic kidney disease patients at increased risk of adverse
cardiovascular outcomes, Mayo Clinic study finds.
National Kidney Foundation. (2017). Facts about chronic kidney