Sample Healthcare Essay on How to Quit Smoking

Healthcare: How to Quit Smoking


Services allied to clinical prevention strive to meet and fulfill the needs and wants of the populace to improve healthcare. They establish a healthcare culture aimed at preventing diseases and promoting healthcare based on the best scientific evidence. Socioeconomic influences on health, however, have hindered members of the public from accessing these services. More so, the government struggles to achieve healthcare equality in the country. Consequently, a large group of citizens, mainly from middle and lower income levels, face barriers in attempts to access and afford healthcare. This report will therefore discuss these issues and applicable healthcare services to help smokers quit the unethical and unhealthy habit (ACS, 2014).

In the United States, smoking causes at least four hundred deaths annually due to tobacco abuse. Socioeconomic effects allied to smoking are also significant. The government asserts that approximately ninety seven billion dollars are lost annually as productivity costs. More so, the government spends at least ninety six billion dollars on medical costs treating patients affected by smoking. Currently, the government estimates that at least forty million citizens are smokers. They smoke pipes, little cigars, e-cigarettes, cigars, dissolvables, including nicotine strips, sticks, and orbs as well as snus, smokeless tobacco, and cigarettes (Stephen, Marshall, Victor & Ann, 2013).

More than seventy percent of the smokers, however, desire and want to quit. It is therefore possible and practical to help smokers to quit. They however need help, support, and motivation to quit successfully without relapsing. Consequently, chronic diseases associated to smoking are bound to decrease. Community healthcare centers are equipped with high quality and patient-centered models to assist smokers to quit. The best model, however, should be allied to team-based care to develop strong relations among smokers, family members, and healthcare providers. Consequently, the patient can learn preventive measures and ongoing support to quit smoking (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

The government should however provide resources to eradicate healthcare inequalities. These inequalities also underlie various barriers hindering citizens from accessing healthcare services. For example, a survey was conducted in 2011 by the UDS National Report, affirming that more than eighty percent of patients suffer from continuous use of tobacco. The report, however, also confirmed that only fifty three percent are able to afford and access healthcare services to quit smoking. More so, the healthcare services are neither consistent nor progressive as they are mainly allied to advice and medication to achieve cessation (PFP, 2013).

UDS acknowledged that the government should provide healthcare institutions with adequate resources and personnel to encourage tobacco cessation. The United States Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline also affirmed that treating smokers should involve screening and providing evidence based advice, treatment procedures, and medication to assist them in quitting. The government should therefore ensure that the Affordable Care Act provides adequate primary care and coverage to smokers. Healthcare reforms should be undertaken to identify primary and preventive healthcare services consistent with the mission to quit and cease smoking. Consequently, various models and theoretical treatment programs can be established and implemented to assist smokers in quitting the habit (ACS, 2014).

Conceptual Framework

Initiate Health Behavioral Changes Model

The best model to assist smokers should be based on initiating health behavioral changes. This model initiates behavioral changes in order to quit and maintain the belief that smoking is neither healthy nor ethical. The model applies various procedures to assist smokers. Firstly, a smoker ought to acknowledge that he/she is addicted and at risk of various healthcare issues. The patient should also believe that future outcomes after quitting smoking are positive socially, economically, and in terms of health. The model therefore relies on a self-regulatory approach, through which a patient strives to decrease their current and desired goal to quit smoking (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

In order to succeed in this approach, a healthcare provider should provide the patient with tobacco cessation clinical services. These services achieve various goals crucial in helping patients to believe that they can quit smoking. Thus, the first process should involve sustaining efforts integrated to cease smoking by providing comprehensive, high quality, and continuous clinical services. These services ought to be administered directly by a clinical officer. The second procedure should involve assessing the patient’s daily activities. This assists in identifying issues and factors encouraging the patient to institute and maintain their smoking habit. Consequently, the clinical officer can prioritize cessation measures that the patient can adopt and sustain. As a result, the patient can efficiently and consistently embed standard healthcare services successful in ensuring that they quit smoking (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

This model therefore emphasizes that smoking is neither healthy nor beneficial, based on socioeconomic aspects. The clinical officer should explain to a smoker that the habit causes various diseases. They include the coronary heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, and chronic bronchitis, as well as emphysema, among other chronic obstructive illnesses. More so, persons susceptible to second hand smoking risk suffering from hypertension, asthma, heart diseases, and diabetes (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

The model should also ensure that the patient understands the socioeconomic effects of smoking. According to Anne Brown, most smokers lack formal education such as undergraduate and graduate degrees. More so, unemployed adults are more likely to start smoking than persons working full time. Manual laborers and blue-collar workers, however, record higher rates of smoking behavior than white-collar employees. Persons either under Medicaid or who are uninsured also record a higher number of smokers than people with private healthcare insurance covers. The number of persons exposed to secondhand smoking however exceeds smokers among people living below the poverty level. Thus, lung cancer, chronic illnesses, and other healthcare issues associated with smoking are mainly associated with low socioeconomic status. It is, however, encouraging to note that smokers below poverty level are more willing, and often try, to quit than those at and above poverty line (Stephen, Marshall, Victor & Ann, 2013).

Healthcare Effects after Quitting Smoking

The health behavioral changes model provides the following crucial facts to support and encouraging patients into quitting smoking. As a first step, the patient should quit smoking for twenty minutes. Consequently, the clinical officer should affirm the patient’s pulse rate and blood pressure drop in order to ensure that the body temperature rises to normal. In twelve hours, the levels of carbon monoxide in the blood decrease, enabling oxygen levels to rise back to normal. After three months, blood circulation in the lungs is bound to improve. This improves the patient’s walking and lung functions while decreasing the risk of suffering from a heart attack. After nine months, the patient should undergo clinical testing to assess whether their sinus, coughing, and shortness of breath problems have decreased. The patient can also affirm that the levels of fatigue have decreased. After one year, a healthcare officer can assess to confirm that the patient’s risk levels of suffering from coronary diseases have decreased by half. In ten years, the patient’s risk level to suffer from lung, throat, mouth, bladder, kidney, esophagus, and pancreas cancers, as well as ulcers, drops. If the patient succeeds to quit smoking for a period of fifteen years, the risk of suffering from coronary heart illness can equate to that among non-smokers (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

Thus, the model is evidence-based, coupled with visual representations to affirm that smoking is harmful to the patient’s health and socioeconomic health. Consequently, the patient can feel encouraged and motivated to quit and cease smoking. The healthcare provider should however continue conducting regular checkups to ensure that the patient has neither relapsed nor is on the verge of starting to smoke again. These follow up check-ups are crucial as the patient receives further advice to sustain the non-smoking habit. More so, patients are awarded with an opportunity to ask for advice on how to deal with day-to-day issues hindering them from ceasing smoking. Thus, the model is continuous and persistent to effectively and efficiently ensure that the society is rid of smokers (ACS, 2014).

Theoretical Foundation

In order to help patients become long term non-smokers, it is crucial to apply a theoretical framework. The consistently prevailing theory applies various strategies to initiate and promote intensive interventions lasting for a long period of time. Thus, the theory can be applied to encourage smokers to quit the tobacco consumption on long-term basis. More so, it can encourage and support the integration of behavioral changes model to achieve this goal (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

The consistent prevailing theory based on predictors and patterns of smokers’ behaviors can establish healthcare control and reviews to ensure that they quit on a long-term basis. On a societal level, governmental and environmental agencies should prohibit people from smoking in public places. Restrictions on public smoking should be widespread especially among areas visited by children and the elderly. Consequently, smokers visiting or working near such places can adopt smoking patterns through which they can adapt to tobacco withdrawal. Consistent exposure to such restricting measures can encourage and support a smoker to quit smoking ultimately (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

Behavioral changes are based on various determinant factors including individual experiences, thoughts, beliefs, and principles allied to smoking. For example, responsible adults ought to avoid smoking around children. Some people with no desire to quit smoking can however attempt to influence fellow smokers to smoke in restricted areas or near children. This is because their thoughts and principles with regards to smoking lack belief that they can actually quit smoking, even temporarily for the short-term. This eventually leads to a persistent behavior of smoking irrespective of legal, environmental, and societal laws (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

According to Glanz, Lewis, and Rimer, behavioral change is based on the following six variables. First, a person ought to have an attitude and belief that he/she can overcome smoking. Consequently, they ought to have self-efficacy and perceived abilities enacting and maintaining behavioral changes. Based on previous experiences, the behavioral changes can be directly or indirectly be subjected to social influences. Thus, a smoking desiring to quit on long term basis should avoid societal influences encouraging use of tobacco substances. For example, they should avoid spending time with people in areas they associate with smoking. Stage based and systematic progress to relinquish smoking therefore rely on behavioral changes determining the individual’s willingness, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived abilities to quit (Jake, Mariella & Norman, 2012).

A Campaign to Discourage Smoking

A campaign to discourage smoking ought to highlight the various adverse socio, environmental, health, and economic effects. Foremost, the campaign advert should discourage nonsmokers from adopting the habit. Thus, people involved in the act of smoking should develop and adopt consistent behaviors through which they can quit smoking on long-term basis. Persons smoking should therefore plan and prepare behavioral changes to initiate changes allied to short and long term tobacco consumption. Active initiation plans should however be planned and implemented to ensure behavioral changes are sustained. Occasional contextual situations precipitating replaces should also be identified and either avoided or prevented. Thus, interventions to ensure a public campaign against smoking should be advertised and promoted (Ron, 2011).

In order for the campaign to work, the members of the public should be educated on the adverse effects of smoking. Utilizing mass media including radio and television stations can achieve this goal. More so, community and society and community based programs discouraging the act smoking should be established. They should provide members of the public with adverse health, socioeconomic, and environmental effects associated with smoking. For example, special behavioral changes and interventions on face to face as well as media marketing contacts can develop and implement marketing policies allied to legal and social regulatory measures. Consequently, an individual can learn and adopt withdrawal symptoms and ensure they ultimately learn to quit smoking. Healthcare professionals assert that, controlling the intense, exposure, and adverse effects associated with smoking can support and encourage an individual to quit smoking. In order to ensure the individual quits smoking on long-term basis however, intense intervention and preventive measures should be adopted. The following therefore represents a campaign advert to assist smokers to cease and quit tobacco smoking (Ron, 2011).

Negative Effects of Smoking Positive Effects of Smoking
·       It leads to chronic illness

·       Causes heart attacks

·       Leads to lung cancer

·       Reduces fertility levels

·       Leads to depletion of economic resources

·       Decreases self-efficacy that one can quit smoking on long and short term basis.

·       Social support among family members and friends also declines.

·       Persons attempting to quit smoking are more stressed than people who have never tried to consume tobacco products.

·       Ultimately, it increases death rates across developing and developed countries.


ü  Saves economic resources of the patient.

ü  Prevents the individual from suffering healthcare scares.

ü  Increases fertility levels among men and women.

ü  Increases thinking abilities and capacities among non-smoking individuals.

ü  Lack and decrease in smoking increases a person’s ability to concentrate and understand without feeling irritated, fatigued, and nauseated.

ü  Toxic levels in the body decrease enhancing skin growth, enhancement and brain improvement.

ü  Risks to suffer from heart attacks are reduced immensely.

ü  The risk of suffering from chronic illnesses is also reduced.

ü  Lung cancer is prevented and avoided by fifty percent.

ü  The healthcare conditions maintained and sustained among children and the elderly are achieved.

ü  Cognitive decision based strategies effective and efficient towards achievement allied to long term non-smoking behavioral habits can be achieved.



Thus, the non-smoking persons should adopt behavioral changes acknowledging and supporting consequential practices as motivations to quit smoking. Friends, family members, and societal members violating an individuals’ choice to quit and cease smoking should be consistently and persistently blocked from social and economic activities encouraging relations. Consequently, the smoker can voluntarily, consistently, and persistently quit smoking on long and short term basis (Ron, 2011).


Quitting smoking can therefore prevent diseases and deaths among communities. Healthcare centers, providers, and the government should however provide patients with support and advice to quit smoking. Improving and increasing efficient and quality healthcare services at affordable costs can encourage and motivate smokers to seek help. Integrating tobacco cessation programs and services across various healthcare institutions in the country can also encourage smokers to quit, thus achieving major strides in discouraging consumption of tobacco. More importantly, follow up assessments and checkups should also be integrated in the healthcare and clinical services. Consequently, patients can achieve and sustain a healthy non-smoking behavioral lifestyle. More so, they can innovatively create solutions that they believe are more applicable in helping other smokers to quit. Thus, people without interest or thoughts to smoke should be encouraged to sustain their beliefs, attitudes, and values allied to non-smoking. Conversely, the contemplation stage involving intense and serious beliefs aligned to adopt beliefs that smoking is necessary should be avoided and prevented. For example, coherent plans among friends to attend a party and smoke should be discouraged and disrupted. Consequently, smokers can acknowledge and adopt behavioral changes based on the belief that smoking is not ethical on social, healthy, and environmental aspects. Thus, they should consistently adopt behavioral changes encouraging and supporting the act of quitting tobacco smoking.



American Cancer Society (ACS). (2014). Guide to Quitting Smoking: What Do I Need to Know About Quitting?. American Cancer Society Report.

Jake, M., Mariella, M., & Norman, D. (2012). Theories and Models of Behavioral Change, Forest Research Report.

Partnership for Prevention (PFP). (2013). Help Your Patients Quit Tobacco Use: An Implementation Guide for Community Health Centers, Legacy and Partnership for Prevention.

Ron, B. (2011). Theories of Behavior Change in Relation to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control to Protect Children, Background Paper.

Stephen, A. E., Marshall, H. B., Victor, J. S., & Ann,  P. K. (2013). Smoking Behavior, Cessation Techniques, and the Health Decision Model, Protect children, University of Michigan.