A variety of social, personal, environmental, and economic factors contribute to personal and individual health. For instance, highly learned people with stable employment and quality education, safe homes and neighborhoods, and access to effective health care remain healthy throughout their lives. Poor results of health are worsened by the interaction between social, individual, and physical environments. Social determinants are responsible for the avoidance and equal differences in health status between and within various communities. In the past few years, scientists have understood the genetic influence of personal behavior that does not explain full disparities in infectious diseases (Reading & Wien, 2009). Incorporated and composite social formations, as well as economic schemes collectively known as social determinants of health, affect human mortality and morbidity. Structural inequalities within a society contributing to better health outcomes for several individuals are apparent. Nevertheless, disparities in resources within a society are not constantly noticeable by conventional methods of evaluating disease load to institute casual links. Improving and measuring social determinants and connecting them with health will give a clear evidence to support policy action and development. Reading and Wien (2009) further points out that public health is not only interested in reducing mortality and morbidity rate but also achieving equity and health outcomes among sub-populations, particularly those with socio-economic disadvantage.
According to Raphael (2009), it is important to address the social determinants of health through the inclusion of social and physical environments that promotes good health for all as one of the overarching objectives of the decade. Raphael (2009) further points out that there is a need to close the gap in the generation and health equality through action and social determinants of health. The U.S. government shares this emphasis and other health programs like the State Corporation of Feat to end disparities in health and uphold national deterrence and health plan. However, social determinants that significantly affect the health of individuals include;
- Accessibility to parks and safe sidewalks associated with the physical activities of adults.
- Education associated with a long life expectancy improved health and quality of life, and health-promoting behaviors like getting regular activity.
- Disgrace, favoritism, and unjust management in the place of work can have an intense health blow. Prejudice can lead to augment in blood pressure, a rise in self-efficacy, and self-esteem (Raphael, 2009).
- Eating and living places for individuals affect their diets.
- Denial by relatives and society, like being intimidated, transgender denunciation, lesbianism, gays and formative years have enduring impact that includes despair, suicide, and usage of unlawful drugs.
Social Determinants that can be linked to the Health Status of the U.S. Population
Discrimination and Community Rejection against Transgender People
Many Americans fail to understand the meaning of transgender. However, transgender groups face numerous prejudiced hurdles to full egalitarianism. Sometimes, these individuals encounter difficulties in meeting their basic needs or having their gender identity respected. The majority of them are bisexuals and lesbians. This behavior is so pervasive and harmful. This can be terminated through the elimination of gender stereotypes and fighting against gender discrimination.
The U.S. does not have a national school system or exception of military academies run by the federal government. The complexity in this is that the schools can be funded partly by the federal government and partly by the local government. The U.S. education is more varied and comprehensive than any other time in existence. However, public education is currently changing for the better (Ladson-Billings, 2006). This is aimed at closing the gap between the rich and the poor as well as accessibility to quality health care. The school’s population is also changing as more children and adults are persistently joining schools, colleges, and universities (Ladson-Billings, 2006).
The U. S. still has a Relatively High Infant Mortality Rate Compared to Other ‘advanced’ Countries around the World—What are Some of the Social Factors that Might be Linked to that?
Poor service delivery in the healthcare system of the U.S. offered to pregnant mothers contributes to infant deaths. Doctors tend to use steroids to stop contraction, which speeds up the development of the infants’ underdeveloped lungs (Mathews & MacDorman, 2007). Other causes of infant mortality include under a year old defects, maternal health complications, sudden infant death syndromes, pre-term related causes of death, and unintentional injuries during birth.
Why is the Life Expectancy Higher in Some other Countries?
The most contributing factor for low life expectancy in the United States is heavy smoking. The rate of smoking in the United States in 1960s as compared to today has escalated. Additionally, obesity plays a bigger role in the life expectancy of the people of the U.S. (Stewart, Cutler, & Rosen, 2009). This is also suspected to offset the harmful effects of smoking. Moreover, the U.S. lacks universal healthcare access that lead to an increase in mortality and reduction in life expectancy. Most of the citizens lose their lives because of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are poorly treated.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in US schools. Educational researcher, 35 (7), 3-12.
Mathews, T. J., & MacDorman, M. F. (2007). Infant mortality statistics from the 2004 period linked birth, infant death data set (Vol. 55). US Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
Raphael, D. (Ed.). (2009). Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives. Canadian Scholars’ Press.
Reading, C. L., & Wien, F. (2009). Health inequalities and the social determinants of Aboriginal peoples’ health. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Stewart, S. T., Cutler, D. M., & Rosen, A. B. (2009). Forecasting the effects of obesity and smoking on US life expectancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 361(23), 2252-2260.