Sample Management Essay on Negotiation


The two experts who were interviewed were professors in the field of education. They engage in both the two main types of negotiation; distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation. In distributive negotiation there is a limit in the amount of thing being distributed amongst the people involved in the negotiation. Distributive negotiation occurs between people who have previously never had an interactive relationship and are not likely to engage in any negotiation again in the near future after the completion of the negotiation. Integrative negotiation involves joining of forces to achieve something together. Unlike the distributive negotiation, integrative negotiation involves a high degree of trust.

In undertaking their duties the professors engage in negotiation with an array of people. They require engaging in negotiation with the listed people so as to enable them perform their duties in a smooth and required manner as per the standards set for them;

  • Students
  • Administration
  • Employers
  • Colleagues
  • Exchange programme universities and other institutions


The professors usually engage in integrative negotiation with their students. In such a scenario, they have to share as much information they have with the students in order to solve problems relating to class work and also students affair while they are in the institution. The students must equally share as much information with the professors so that the problem in hand can be solved in an effective way. In this type of negotiation with the students, it both benefits the professors and the students. Multiple issues are negotiated in such a scenario and there is a high degree of trust between the professors and students.


The professors engage in a integrative negotiation with the institution’s administration. The negotiation is always based on how to improve the running of the affairs of the institution. Both parties come up with ideas and they decide on the best ideas that will be beneficial. In such a negotiation, both the administration and professors tend to benefit in some way. There are multiple issues on the table in this type of negotiation with the administration and both parties usually want to trade something of less value while they receive something of much value. There is always bridge building in these negotiation because the decisions arrived at are always meant for the short-term and long-term futures.


The professors engage in an integrative negotiation with their colleagues in the institution. Majorly the negotiation is usually on creative problem solving in a particular issue arising in the school. It is mostly described as the win-win scenario because the problem arising is a matter that concerns both parties who engage in the negotiation and solving it will be beneficial to them all. They share as much information as possible regarding the issue at hand. In this scenario it is not necessarily one issue that is solved but it can always be multiple issues that can be solved.


The professors engage in a distributive negotiation with their employers. The negotiation is always centered on salary increment. After a certain period of time, the professors together with their colleagues sit down with their employing body and demand for review of their salaries in relation with the economic conditions. The employer in this type of negotiation usually plays its cards close to its chest. They show less eagerness or interest to hear the pleas of the professors so as not to show any kind of weakness that would be exploited by the professors in their demands. The employer usually waits for the professors to make their first offer so that they can get a ground where they can begin the negotiations from. This type of negotiation usually requires both the professors and the employers to be less greedy. Greediness in this scenario usually leads to lack of any agreement by the parties.

Exchange programme universities and other Institutions

The professors interviewed usually engage in both distributive and integrative types of negotiation with other universities and institutions who come for exchange programs. Distributive negotiation comes in when the two institutions want to solve a dispute that has arisen. The professors will negotiate with professors form theother institution on how to handle the matter.The matter at hand is the only matter that they discuss and all parties usually try to compromise on some things so that they can reach the agreement. These are type of negotiations that rarely arise.

The professors engage in integrative negotiation with the exchange programs universities and universities when it comes teaching students form those institutions. The professors and the students usually share a lot of information that will help both parties and will benefit them all. Solutions are usually found for each other’s problem and mostly the solutions serve both the near and far future.

Challenges faced in the negotiations

The professors face a number of challenges in their negotiations with the parties mentioned above. The challenges depend on the type of negotiation that is taking place and with whom it is taking place.

Excessive rigidity

This happens in all types of negotiation that they engage in. in the negotiation with the administration; rigidity comes in when the administration does not want to embrace the change that is advanced by the professors on the affairs of the institution. This rigidity will scupper any deal that was supposed to take place and the negotiation would be a great failure due to this. In the negotiation with the employer; rigidity comes in when the employer is not willing to raise the salary and allowance of the professors. This lack of willingness and flexibility to the idea will suppress the negotiation and completing it will be a difficult task.

Lack of patience

Lack of patience occurs in all the negotiations the professors engage in. this occurs when one party interferes with the speech of the other when it is not their turn to talk. Due to a slight disagreement or a feeling of discomfort by one’s words, the other party breaks into the talk and a destructive argument ensues. This actually reduces any chance of success of the negotiation nd actually it usually makes the negotiation to start afresh with no guarantee that there will be no any disruption of speech.


Time is a major challenge encountered in the negotiations as everyone has their own time and way of being convinced about something. The time set for negotiation is always not enough and this actually makes the negotiations engaged by the professors to be a failure because the parties with whom the lecturers engage in the negotiation with will feel harassed due to the hurriedly nature of the professors in reaching to an agreement and conclusion. Time also makes the matters to be discussed in a case of integrative negotiation to be cut. All the issues present for negotiation will not be discussed due to the fact that the time set aside is not enough. Lack of time is due to other schedules that both parties have.


Sarcasm is a major challenge for negotiation because most of the time it usually leads to one party walking out of the negotiation. Either the professor or the other party will feel despised due to the sarcasm and that will make them unwilling to continue with the negotiation. Sarcasm also can lead to one party agreeing to something without full knowledge of the binding factors. This usually causes reversal of negotiation agreements.

Lack of confidence

This happens when the professors go into negotiation with someone of higher power like the administration. In such scenarios, the professors usually fear making eye contact with the administration people and this is a big challenge as it will make the demands of the professors not to be heard. Once the other party realizes that the professors are not confident; then they will use that to their advantage.

Aggressive Behaviors

This happens particularly with negotiations with employers and the students. With the students, they will use aggressive behaviors such as attempts to make the lecturer feel guilty in the middle of a negotiation. They will try to sway the mind of the professor in regards to the issue at hand and this will greatly compromise the negotiation. The employer uses aggressive tactics such as bullying and threats to the professors when they want to negotiate their salary. They will be threatened about their job and this will jeopardize the negotiation.

Delay Tactics

This is a tactic they encounter with senior people when negotiating. This is mainly with the administration and the employer. They tend to have the notion that they call the shots because they are more important. This means that the negotiation will be at their mercy and they will sway the decision that will be reached. The agreement will not be the true picture of what the professors had earlier wanted.

Linking logic

This is usually based on the assumption that someone will always be right as long as they were right in one thing. This most of the times make the negotiation one sided because if for example the student will be correct in one thing, it will be hard for the professor to convince him that he is wrong in another thing because there will be that assumption that they are always right.

Factors that lead to negotiation success in their field

There are many factors that should be in place so that the lecturers can negotiate successfully in their field of profession. It is not a must for all the factors to be present, but one must be present in order for a successful negotiation to take place.

Interdependence of parties

The parties should be dependent of each other and with their unique interests and wants. This makes the negotiation successful because there will be a free agreement reached without any fear from either party. The professors should be dependent on the parties be it administration, students, or employer because the solution arrived at by the negotiation is affecting two parties. The parties need assistance from each other for there to be an impetus to negotiate.

Willingness to participate

A negotiation in that profession requires willingness from both parties to negotiate. Negotiation is a tiresome activity which requires dedication of an individual in participating. There must be willingness from both parties to participate in the negotiation for its success. This is because negotiation cannot take place with one party.  For there to be patient among the parties during the negotiation, then there must be that willingness to participate in the negotiation. A successful negotiation must have willingness from both parties.

Means of Influence

For a successful negotiation to take place in that field; one party must have some influence on the attitude and behavior of the other party. This will keep the other party on their toes and push for a solution for the negotiation to be found very quickly.  The professors while negotiating for the salary increment have an influence on the employer because if they decide to put down their tools and refuse to work, then it will paralyze the education system in the country. On the other hand the employer has an influence on the professors because they can be relieved from their duties any time. This scenario allows for a successful negotiation between the parties.

Unpredictability of outcome

Unpredictability of outcome is always tied to the success of negotiations in many fields including the career field of the professors. The fact that both parties are not aware of the implications of going into the negotiation makes the negotiation more captivating for the parties. The thrill in it makes negotiation more successful and it makes the parties more committed and dedicated to the negotiation. The professors usually enter into a negotiation with the notion that it is for the better but they never know if a specific negotiation will be beneficial to them. This gives them the urge to experience which drives them into a negotiation.

Sense of urgency

In that profession there must be a sense of urgency over a deadline so that the negotiation can be a success. The parties with whom the professors are engaging into a negotiation with should show that they are aware of time span for the negotiation to be done and completed. The sense of urgency will make both parties to treat the negotiation with some seriousness and this will help in coming up with a solution in a faster way. Time frame of a solution is one of the indicators of a successful negotiation.



Both parties should be able to adjust and be flexible to the demands of theother parties so that a solutioncan be arrived at. This is always in the case where one party does not feel much loss or a certain solution and if they stay to their decision, then no solution will be made. In such a scenario, one party must be self-less in order for an agreement to be reached. Successful negotiations do not mean that all the parties will be fully satisfied and happy with the solution; but they mean that the solution will have been arrived at without any form of force from one party to another.