Sample Medicine Paper on Prevention and Treatment of Malaria in Manipal, India

Malaria is among the deadly diseases that cause fatalities in a short time if not diagnosed
and treated early enough. It has caused millions of deaths around the world, including India.
Historically, the highest number of malaria incidences in India took place in the 1950s, according
to the World Health Organization (Samby et al., 2019). Malaria is a communicable disease that is
spread through bites from anopheles mosquitos. The infected mosquito carries a parasite known
as plasmodium, which is released into the body during the biting. Some of the symptoms of
malaria include high fever, chills, nausea, and headache and muscle pain among others. It is only
diagnosed medically through blood tests in the laboratory (Maskeri et al., 2018). The disease can
be prevented by sleeping under a treated mosquito net, clearing bushes and stagnant water
among other measures. It is treated by medication by qualified medical professionals. In most of
the world, efforts are being made to put an end to new infections and the spread of malaria. In
the Manipal area of the Karnataka State, India malaria has been a life-threatening disease that has
caused long-term health issues and deaths.
The aim of this research seeks to identify some of the cases of malaria in Manipal, India.
It also highlights the preventive and treatment measures put in place. This study is captivated by
the recurrent cases of malaria in the region, which has created losses and concern among the
residents and the country (Verma et al., 2013). The project will also highlight a profound
background of cases of tests conducted on individuals in the area. Besides, it will highlight some
of the efforts by the government and community health workers in preventing and eradicating

this deadly disease. Community members have also been considered as helpful agents in
championing for the prevention of malaria and the spread of new cases.
Literature Review
Malaria is one of the significant challenges facing India. In the Manipal area of
Karnataka India, a study was carried out among workers at a construction site. It involved both
qualitative and quantitative studies at their worksites and their residences. The interview sought
to understand how the environment influences malaria. Twenty respondents were interviewed at
four worksites in Manipal and neighboring communities. The findings highlighted open tanks,
car tyres, poor sewage disposal, high temperatures thick vegetation and high humidity among the
causes and spread of malaria (Wangdi et al., 2019). It was recommended that residents in the
area should be educated on the importance of conserving the environment to prevent the spread
of the disease. The conservation measures included outdoor spraying in the thickets, garbage
removal and maintaining general environmental hygiene. It was found that construction sites
were among the significant contributors to the transmission of malaria (Poovathingal & Nagiri,
The significant cases of malaria in the Manipal area of the Udupi District were the
presence of construction sites. This is according to research conducted. The sites were full of
water tanks used for storing water for construction purposes. The stagnant water, therefore,
served as a breeding point for mosquitoes that cause malaria. It was also found that migrant
workers were the highest suffering from the malaria epidemic. They were not used to the
temperatures of the locality, therefore, being easy prey to the mosquitoes (Verma, 2013). As per

2019, the malaria cases in the district had declined to 221 compared to 2012, where they were at
2217. That was, according to Prashanth Bhat, who is the District Malaria Control Officer.
In an article written in The Hindu, measures were taken by the Department of Health and
Family Welfare to prevent the continuous spread of malaria in Udupi, which includes the
Manipal area (Prabhu, 2015). The department focused on construction sites which were
identified as significant places with high cases of the disease. Meetings were held with hotel
owners, contractors and supervisors of construction sites to discuss the way forward. The
department employed the use of social media in spreading the efficient measures of preventing
malaria (Malaria cases on the decline in Udupi district, says officer, 2019). All these activities
took place in 2015 to try and eradicate the disease from the locality. The department also
collaborated with the Department of Public Health at the University of Manipal in conducting
Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping of dengue and malaria cases in the locality. The
mapping was aimed at identifying the exact places where the diseases were highly concentrated.
According to research conducted on inpatients in Kasturba hospital in Manipal, malaria
still caused havoc among residents. The study was conducted on 183 people aged 18 years and
above from 2009 to 2011. They tested positive for plasmodium falciparum. Among the
participants, male participants were higher at 78%. Most of the malaria cases occurred during the
monsoon season (In its quest to eliminate malaria, India focuses on Odisha and the tribal states,
2019). The symptoms ranged from fever, jaundice, headache and vomiting. Others had
complications that included hepatic dysfunction, shock, altered sensorism and renal failure.
Treatment and Prevention

Malaria has been prevalent in areas with high humidity and temperatures, offering a
conducive environment for the breeding of the anopheles mosquito. According to Prabhu (2015),
India has been reported to be malaria-endemic and the Manipal area of Karnataka state is
indifferent. Among the prevention methods adopted include the awareness and sensitization
among residents in the malaria-prone regions. According to studies and reports, residents in and
around Manipal get educated on the need to care for their environment. The measures include
clearing of vegetation around homes and draining stagnant water (Poovathingal & Nagiri, 2014).
They are also sensitized on the importance of taking preventive measures and the effects of
malaria which in some cases without treatment lead to fatalities.
Around the world, prevention measures are based on two methods namely
chemoprophylaxis and protecting the body against mosquito bites. Efforts to come up with
vaccines against malaria are underway and most individuals are hopeful that it will be a success.
In Manipal, residents have been sensitized on ways of preventing mosquito bites (Poovathingal
& Nagiri, 2014). The primary way to avoid the bites is by putting on clothes that cover the body
and avoiding places suspected to have mosquitoes. Besides, sprays and ointments are used to
keep the mosquitoes away .
The quest of India as a whole to completely eradicate malaria by 2030 is underway.
Generally, cases of malaria have dropped since the introduction of insecticidal nets. In Manipal,
the residents have been supplied with mosquito nets for use during sleeping to prevent mosquito
bites. With the help of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), villagers were provided
with treated bed nets (Prabhu, 2015). That was a move financed by the Global Fund to Fight
AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. They are also issued with indoor sprays that kill the
mosquitoes. These preventive measures have contributed to the decline of the number of

populations infected with the disease. The ASHAs also educate the residents on the importance
of using the mosquito nets.
Treating expectant mothers is another significant preventive measure against malaria.
Pregnant women are reported to have a lower immunity which puts them in a vulnerable
situation. They are therefore offered antimalarial doses during the gestation period which can
protect the mother and the unborn child. With the help of ASHAs in Manipal and the more
significant Karnataka state, expectant mothers are sensitized on visiting health centers upon
suspected symptoms of the disease. Children below the age of five are also highly protected
against the deadly parasite because of their immunity status (Redd et al., 2011). Mothers are
therefore asked to visit health facilities with their ailing children to avoid further complications.
At the hospitals, they are tested and issued with the required medication, mosquito nets and
preventive counseling.
Malaria in India is treated medically depending on the type of infection, its severity, the
host’s status, and other diseases associated with it. For instance, based on the nature of the
infection, patients having the Plasmodium falciparum type of malaria are supposed to be
thoroughly tested to determine the severity of the disease and some possible resistant
characteristics to anti-malarial drugs (Draper et al., 2017). The age of patients is also a
determinant in issuing medication. Malaria is a disease that can be treated in three days but if it is
diagnosed at a delayed time, it might lead to death. Besides, patients in the Manipal area and the
country, in general, are treated with Primaquine as radical treatment. They also receive
presumptive treatment which includes the administration of blood schizonticidal drugs to all the
suspected cases of the disease. That then follows full treatment after the disease has been



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